Flora and Fungi at Woolston Eyes

This section of the website (under construction) identifies the Flora - Flowers, Shrubs, Trees, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, Mosses, Liverworts and Fungi - which have been located and identified on the Reserve. The order of viewing is;

Flower species

Shrub and Tree species

Grasses, Sedges and Rush species

Mosses and Liverwort species

Fungi species

Lists of the above species can be viewed by clicking on the relevant links to current pdf files.

Click here to view a list of Flowers found on the Reserve

Click here to view a list of Shrubs & Tree species found on the Reserve

Click here to view lists of the Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Typha found on the Reserve

Click here to view a list of Mosses & Liverworts found on the Reserve

 
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Systematic list of the Flowers of Woolston Eyes

The list of Flowers includes everything which is not a shrub, tree, grass, sedge, rush, typha, moss, liverwort or fungi.

Click on an image to enlarge it

 
001 Hop - Humulus lupulus
001 Hop
David Riley

An unusual plant to be found on the Reserve, possibly a remnant of past cultivation or seeding from the dredging desposits.

A tall climbing perennial, up to 6m, with male, branched yellowish-green flower clusters and globular female flower clusters on separate plants. The fruit is the familiar pale green cone-like structure. Close examination will show a square stem and clockwise twining. With broadly heart-shaped deeply 3 or 5 lobed strongly toothed leaves the flowering period is July to September.

Photograph is of male flower from No.2 Bed on 09/08/2017 - female plants can produce male flowers if stressed but only the female flowers develop into the familiar Hop cone.

 
002 Common Nettle - Urtica dioica

Known by its other common name, Stinging Nettle, this plant is widespread throughout the Reserve and universally recognised, once stung.

A medium to tall plant with generally heart shaped strongly toothed leaves, the small yellowish-green flowers form drooping clusters from the base of the upper leaves from June to September.

No Woolston image available

 
003 Mistletoe - Viscum album

Rare on the Reserve but noted on the banks of the River Mersey.

A parasitic plant found on tree boughs, typical hosts being apple and popular. Has pairs of leathery pale yellow-green leaves in a well branched form, typically spherical looking. The green flowers are small and insignificant from February to April but the white fruiting berry from November to February is very recognised with its association with Christmas.

No Woolston image available.

 
004 Bistort - Polygonum bistorta

A common plant on the Reserve, found in the damper and moisture retentive areas.

A medium tall plant with smooth unbranched stems and blunt triangular shaped, stalked, lower leaves but small triangular upper leaves which ‘sheath’ the stem. The flower head is a solitary dense cylindrical spike of individual flowers circa 40mm long from June to October.

No Woolston image available.

 
005 Amphibious Bistort - Polygonum amphibium

Prefers its roots in water which is where it is found on the Reserve at the water margins of ponds and ditches.

A sprawling perennial floating and hairless, with rooting nodes at leaf junctions. Leaves oblong and do not taper at the base as in Bistort above. The flower head is a dense spike of small pink flowers similar to Bistort from June to September.

No Woolston image available.

 
006 Redshank - Polygonum persicaria
006 Redshank
Dave Bowman

Widespread over the Reserve on bare and recently disturbed ground, especially close to water.

A sprawling branched annual with lnceolate leaves, typically with a dark centre spot either side of the mid-rib. Pink to whitish flower spike from June to October which develop to glossy black seeds.

Photograph from No3. Bed 21/09/2014

 
007 Knotgrass - Polygonum aviculare

Widespread around the Reserve on poor soil and bare ground.

A low sprawling branched annual with lanceolate leaves reducing in size up the stem with noticeable stipules which also sheath the stem giving an overall zig-zag appearance. The small pink to whitish flowers are usually solitary at the base of the upper leaves from June to October.

No Woolston image available.

 
008 Japonese Knotweed - Reynoutria japonica (Polygonum cupsidatum)

Found on the Reserve in a few isolated stands.

A large invasive perennial difficult to eradicate and forming dense stands up to 2m. Stout hollow stems with reddish hue and zigzag appearance. Leaves are broad triangular with wide base from which the loosely clustered and branched white flower spikes rise in August to October.

No Woolston image available.

 
009 Sorrel - Rumex acetosa

Common plant, abundant around the Reserve.

Short to tall perennial, with arrow head shaped leaves, the lower stalked but the upper leaves much smaller and clasping the stem. The flower head is loosely branched with reddish-green-yellow flowers in whorls from May to August.

No Woolston image available.

 
010 Sheep's Sorrel - Rumex acetosella

Similar plant to the Common Sorrel found on bare dry areas.

This is a short perennial again with arrow head shaped narrow leaves but the lower larger leaf lobes point forward rather than backward in Common Sorrel. The flower head is similarly little branched with reddish-green-yellow flowers arranged in whorls up the spike from May to August.

No Woolston image available.

 
011 Broad-leaved Dock - Rumex obtusifolius

Common throughout the Reserve.

A tall perennial plant of uncultivated, bare and disturbed ground. The leaves are large and broadly oblong, the lower rounded or heart shaped at the base. Flowers from June to October, the spikes consisting of small reddish-green-yellow flowers arranged in whorls up the branched stems.

No Woolston image available.

 
012 Curled Dock - Rumex crispus

Much less common than the Broad-leaved Dock but localised over the Reserve.

Very similar looking plant to the Broad-leaved Dock but the leaves are narrower and exhibit wavy edges and merge into the stalk without the obvious rounded heart shaped base.

No Woolsto image available.

 
013 Fat Hen - Chenopodium album

Widespread on the Reserve.

Tall green plant covered in a silvery-grey mealy covering and often reddish hued stem. Leaves are variable being diamond to lanceolate and generally toothed. Flowers are green forming dense clusters originating from the upper leaf joints from June to October.

No Woolston image available.

 
014 Many Seeded Goosefoot - Chenopodium polyspermum
014 Many Seeded Goosefoot
Dave Bowman

Recorded on No3. Bed in the bird feed meadow.

A variable plant, erect or spreading in nature, hairless with oval leaves generally untoothed. Stems often reddish and square, flowers greenish in dense and loose clusters July to October.

Photograph of a plant in seed from No3 Bed North Meadow 21/09/2014

 
015 Thyme-leaved Sandwort - Arenaria serpyllifolia

First recorded in the survey of 1995-96 by Rosalind Martin.

A sprawling prostrate hairy annual found in dry bare places. Leaves are oval, unstalked and opposite on the stems. Flowers white, 5-8mm set against green sepals and yellow anthers from April to November.

No Woolston image available.

 
016 Greater Stitchwort - Stellaria holostea

Found in shadier places, hedges, banks, wood margins on heavier soil.

 
017 Common Chickweed - Stellaria media

 
018 Common Mouse-ear - Cerastium fontanum

 
019 Corn Spurrey - Spergula arvensis

 
020 Procumbent Pearlwort - Sagina procumbens

 
021 Red Campion - Siliene dioica
021 Red Campion
Dave Hackett

Photograph from No3 Bed 18/05/2014

 
022 White Campion - Siliene alba

 
023 Ragged Robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
023 Ragged Robin
Dave Hackett

Photograph from No2 Bed 20/06/2013

 
024 Soapwort - Saponaria officinalis

 
025 Meadow Buttercup - Ranunculus acris

 
026 Creeping Buttercup - Ranunculus repens

 
027 Lesser Celandine - Ranunculus ficaria

 
028 Celery-leaved Buttercup - Ranunculus sceleratus

 
029 Common Water Crowfoot - Ranunculus aquatilis

 
030 Wood Anenome - Anemone nemorosa
030 Wood Anenome
David waterhouse

Found in shady places in woody areas, amongst hedges and thickets.

A low perennial, hairless with a single white (sometimes pinkish hue) flower 20 to 40mm across and yellow anthers to the stamen. Leaves are stalked and deeply lobed, characteristically three lobes arranged in a whorl of three leaves below the flower which is from March to May.

Photograph from No3. Bed 29/03/2014

 
031 Wild Turnip - Brassica rapa

 
032 Rape - Brassica napus

 
033 Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock) - Cardamine pratensis

 
034 Hairy Bittercress - Cardamine hirsuta

 
035 Wavy Bittercress - Cardamine flexuosa

 
036 Shepherd's Purse - Capsella bursa-pastoris

 
037 Weld - Reseda luteola

 
038 Biting Stonecrop - Sedum acre

 
039 Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria

 
040 Salad Burnet - Sanguisorba minor

 
041 Dog Rose - Rosa canina

 
042 Bramble - Rubus fruticosus

 
043 Raspberry - Rubus idaeus

 
044 Wild Strawberry - Fragaria vesca

 
045 Trailing Tormentil - Potentilla anglica

 
046 Gorse - Ulex europaeus
046 Gorse
John Blundell

Photograph from No1 Bed 2014

 
047 Tufted Vetch - Vicia cracca

 
048 Bush Vetch - Vicia sepium

 
049 Hairy Tare - Vicia hirsuta

 
050 Meadow Vetchling - Lathyrus pratensis

 
051 Ribbed Melilot - Melilotus officinalis

 
052 White Melilot - Melilotus alba

 
053 Birdsfoot Trefoil - Lotus corniculatus
053 Birdsfoot Trefoil
David Waterhouse

Photograph from No3 Bed 13/07/2014

 
054 Greater Birdsfoot Trefoil - Lotus uliginosus

 
055 Black Medick - Medicago lupulina

 
056 Lesser Trefoil - Trifolium dubium

 
057 Hop Trefoil - Trifolium campestre

 
058 Red Clover - Trifolium pratense

 
059 Zigzag Clover - Trifolium medium

 
060 White Clover - Trifolium repens

 
061 Dovesfoot Cranesbill - Geranium molle

 
062 Himalayan Balsam - Impatiens glandulifera
062 Himalayan Balsam
John Blundell

Photograph from No1 Bed 2014

 
063 Musk Mellow - Malva moschata

 
064 Common Mellow - Malva sylvestris

 
065 Perforate St. John's Wort - Hypericum perforatum

 
066 Large-flowered Evening Primrose - Oenothera erythrosepala
066 Large-flowered Evening Primrose
Dave Hackett

Photograph from No3 Bed 17/07/2013

 
067 Great Willowherb - Epilobium hisutum

 
068 Hoary Willowherb - Epilobium parviflorum

 
069 American Willowherb - Epilobium adenocaulon

 
070 Marsh Willowherb - Epilobium palustre

 
071 Rosebay Willowherb - Epilobium angustifolium

 
072 Wild Carrot - Daucus carota

 
073 Ground Elder - Aegopodium podagraria

 
074 Hogweed - Heracleum sphondylium
074 Hogweed
Douglas Buchanan

Photograph from No3 Bed 19/01/2014

 
075 Giant Hogweed - Heracleum mantegazzianum

 
076 Angelica - Angelica sylvestris

 
077 Garden Angelica - Angelica archangelica

 
078 Hemlock Water Dropwort - Oenanthe crocata

 
079 Wild Parsnip - Pastinaca sativa

 
080 Primrose - Primula vulgaris
080 Primrose
Dave Hackett

Photograph from No3 Bed 05/03/2014

 
081 Greater Periwinkle - Vinca major

 
082 Common Centaury - Centaurium erythraea

 
083 Yellow-wort - Blackstonia perfoliata

 
084 Hedge Bindweed - Calystegia sepium

 
085 Common Cleavers - Galium aparine

 
086 Common Comfrey - Symphytum officinate

 
087 Field For-Get-Me-Not - Myosotis arvensis

 
088 Viper's Burgloss - Echium vulgare
088 Viper's Burgloss
Dave Bowman

Photograph from No3 Bed 06/08/2013

 
089 Skullcap - Scutellaria galericulata

 
090 Self-heal - Prunella vulgaris

 
091 Ground Ivy - Glechoma hederacea

 
092 White Dead-nettle - Lamium album

 
093 Red Dead-nettle - Lamium purpureum

 
094 Hedge Woundwort - Stachys sylvatica

 
095 Marsh Woundwort - Stachys palustris

 
096 Gipsywort - Lycopus europaeus

 
097 Great Mullein - Verbascum thapsus

 
098 Common Figwort - Scrophularia nodosa

 
099 Common Toadflax - Linaria vulgaris

 
100 Monkey Flower - Mimulus guttatus

 
101 Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea

 
102 Thyme-leaved Speedwell - Veronica serpylllifolia

 
103 Brooklime - Veronica beccabunga

 
104 Greater Plantain - Plantago major

 
105 Ribwort Plantain - Plantago lanceolata
105 Ribwort Plantain
Andy Weir

Photograph from No3 Bed 26/05/2013

 
106 Honeysuckle - Lonicera periclymenum

 
107 Teasel - Dipsacus fullonum
107 Teasel
Dave Hackett

Photograph from No4 Bed 07/08/2013

 
108 Harebell - Campanula rotundifolia
108 Harebell
David Waterhouse

Photograph from No3 Bed 31/08/2014

 
109 Hemp Agrimony - Eupatorium cannabinum

 
110 Daisy - Bellis perennis

 
111 Butterbur - Petasites hybridus
111 Butterbur
John Blundell

Photograph from No3 Bed 2014

 
112 Yarrow - Achillea millefolium

 
113 Sneezewort - Achillea ptarmica

 
114 Mugwort - Artemisia vulgaris

 
115 Trifd Bur Marigold - Bidens tripartita

 
116 Nodding Bur Marigold - Bidens cernua

 
117 Ox-Eye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare

 
118 Tansy - Tanacetum vulgare

 
119 Coltsfoot - tussilago farfara

 
120 Ragwort - Senecio jacobaea

 
121 Oxford Ragwort - Senecio squalidus

 
122 Groundsel - Senecio vulgaris

 
123 Sticky Groundsel - Senecio viscosus

 
124 Greater Burdock - Arctium lappa

 
125 Creeping Thistle - Cirsium arvense

 
126 Spear Thistle - Cirsium vulgare

 
127 Marsh Thistle - Cirsium palustre

 
128 Welted Thistle - Carduus acanthoides

 
129 Black Knapweed - Centaurea nigra
129 Black Knapweed
Dave Bowman

Photograph from No3 Bed 06/07/2013

 
130 Goatsbeard - Tragopogen pratensis

 
131 Smooth Sow-Thistle - Sonchus oleraceus

 
132 Prickly Sow-Thistle - Sonchus asper

 
133 Prennial Sow-Thistle - Sonchus arvensis

 
134 Danelion - Taraxacum Sect. Vulgaria

 
135 Common Catsear - Hypochaeris radicata

 
136 Leafy Hawkweed - Hieracium umbellatum

 
137 Common Water-Plantain - Alisma plantago-aquatica

 
138 Bluebell - Endymion non-scriptus
138 Bluebell
Andy Weir

Photograph from No3 Bed 27/04/2014

 
139 Spanish Bluebell - Endymion hispanicus

 
140 Common Star of Bethlehem- Ornithogalum umbellatum
140 Common Star of Bethlehem
David Spencer

Was first recorded on 16th May 2014 on the South Meadow area of No3 Bed and not recorded anywhere else.

It is a perennial with grass like leaves which are grooved with a central white strip emanating from the roots and is hairless. The flowers are white, six petals with a green stripe on the back, in a loose umbel-like cluster on a leafless stem. Flowers May-June in grassy and cultivated places.

Photograph from No.3 Bed South Meadow area 16/05/2014

 
140 Lords and Ladies - Arum maculatum
140 Lords and Ladies
Dave Bowman

Photograph from No3 Bed of the fruiting berries 21/09/2014

 
141 Yellow Flag - Iris pseudacorus

 
142 Blue-eyed Grass - Sisyrinchium bermudiana

 
143 Bee Orchid - Ophrys apifera
143 Bee Orchid
Dave Bowman

Photograph from No4 Bed 28/06/2014

 
144 Southern Marsh Orchid - Dactylorhiza praetermissa

 
145 Common Spotted Orchid- Dactylorhiza fuchsii

 
146 Common Water Starwort - Callitriche stagnalis

 
147 Bulrush - Typha latifolia

 
89 Borage- Borago officinalis
89 Borage
David Waterhouse

Has been reported in the meadow areas of No.3 Bed in recent years.

A roughly hairy medium tall annual with pointed oval shaped leaves, the lower stalked, with wavy edges. The flowers are bright blue, circa 20mm across, held in loose drooping clusters, with narrow green, turning purple, sepal lobes and have a central prominent dark purple stamen column emanating from the white flower centre. Flowers may-September on rough ground, waysides and waste places.

Photograph from No.3 Bed 08/07/2013

 
A0

Systematic list of the Shrubs and Trees of Woolton Eyes

It is perhaps relevant here to define ‘what is a Shrub’ and ‘what is a tree’? - Only plants with woody parts are trees and shrubs.

So once you know that it has woody growth, how do you determine whether it is a tree or a shrub? - The generally acknowledged definition of a tree is a “woody plant having one erect perennial stem (trunk) at least three inches in diameter at a point 4-1/2 feet above the ground, a definitely formed crown of foliage, and a mature height of at least 13 feet.”

Shrubs, therefore, are the opposite of a tree : a “woody plant with several perennial stems that may be erect or may lay close to the ground. It will usually have a height less than 13 feet and stems no more than about three inches in diameter.”

As with everything in life however, there are exceptions. Some trees may have multiple trunks. Some shrubs can be shaped into a small tree by training one trunk. However, as long as the ‘general definitions’ are followed, you should be able to decide whether the plant is a tree, a shrub or neither.

 
A01 Crack Willow - Salix fragilis

 
A02 Grey Willow - Salix cinerea

 
A03 Goat Willow - Salix caprea agg.

 
A04 Osier - Salix viminalis

 
A05 White Poplar - Populus alba

 
A06 Common Alder - Alnus glutinosa

 
A07 Birch sp - Betula sp
A07 Birch sp
Andy Weir

Photograph from No3 Bed 01/12/2013

 
A08 Hazel - Corylus avellana

 
A09 Oak sp. - Quercus sp.

 
A10 Elm sp. - Ulmus sp.

 
A11 Dog Rose - Rosa canina

 
A12 Hawthorn - Crataegus monogyna
A12 Hawthorn
Andy Weir

Photograph from No3 Bed 08/06/2013

 
A13 Rowan - Sorbus aucuparia

 
A14 Whitebeam - Sorbus aria

 
A15 Blackthorn - Prunus spinosa
A15 Blackthorn
Brian Gort

Photograph from No3 Bed 26/06/2014

 
A16 Gorse - Ulex europaeus
A16 Gorse
John Blundell

Photograph from No1 Bed 2014

 
A17 Broom - Cytisus scoparius

 
A18 Flowering Current - Ribes sanguineum

 
A19 Sycamore - Acer pseudoplatanus

 
A20 Field Maple - Acer campestre

 
A21 Large-leaved Lime - Tiilia platyphyllos

 
A22 Rhododendron - Rhododendron ponticum

 
A23 Common Ash - Fraxinus excelsior

 
A24 Buddleia - Buddleia davidii

 
A25 Elder - Sambucus nigra

 
A26 Guelder Rose - Viburnum opulus

 
LM

Systematic list of the Mosses and Liverworts found on the Reserve

Mosses and Liverworts are the little green ‘jobbies’ we often notice but ignore. The most important feature of mosses and liverworts is that they have no vascular system. A plants vascular system is a series of tubes that can transport water and nutrients over a distance, technically the xylem and phloem.

Without a vascular system, mosses, and liverworts cannot grow very large. The ‘plants’ we see are actually carpets of many individuals and not a single plant. They require water to reproduce and have no root systems so need water droplets to survive which is why they are associated with moist and damp environments.They are known as the bryophytes.

Mosses are simple waxy little plants with no leaves and no stem that use each other to stay upright. Liverworts are even simpler than mosses. These are considered to be the simplest of all plants and often grow flat along the ground in large leaf-like structures.

 
LM01 Rough-stalked Feather-Moss - Brachythecium rutabulum

 
LM02 Cypress-leaved Plait-Moss (Hypnum Moss) - Hypnum cupressiforme

 
LM03 Common Smoothcap (Catherines Moss) - Atrichum undulatum

 
LM04 Common Feather-moss - Kindbergia praelonga

 
LM05 Mamillate Plait-moss - Hypnum andoi

 
LM06 Forked Veilwort - Metzgeria furcata

 
LM07 Bluish Veilwort - Metzgeria fruticulosa

 
LM08 Lateral Cryphaea - Cryphaea heteromalla

 
LM09 Bifid Crestwort - Lophocolea bidentata

 
LM10 Springy Turf-moss - Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus

 
LM11 Pointed Spear-moss - Calliergonella cuspidata

 
LM12 Wood Bristle-moss - Orthotrichum affine

 
LM13 Thread-moss - Bryum capillare

 
LM14 Heath Star-moss - Campylopus introflexus

 
LM15 Elegant Bristle-moss - Orthotrichum pulchellum

 
LM16 Velvet Feather-moss - Brachythecium velutinum

 
LM17 Supine Plait-moss - Hypnum resupinatum

 
LM18 Grey-cushioned Grimmia - Grimmia pulvinata

 
LM19 Cape Thread-moss - Orthodontium lineare

 
LM20 Common Pincushion - Dicranoweisia cirrata

 
LM21 Creeping Feather-moss - Amblystegium serpens

 
LM22 Dilated Scalewort - Frullania dilatata

 
M01 Orange Peel Fungus

Family: Pyronemataceae - Species: Aleuria aurantia

A common ‘cup’ fungus in Britain, on clay soils and disturbed ground in late summer and autumn.

They usually grow in clusters and tend to develop irregular shapes, due in part to the crowding nature of growth, and can flatten and split. They are smooth, shiny and bright orange on the inside of the cup and downy white, when fresh, on the outside, becoming increasingly smooth and orange with maturity. The cup size is 2-10cm in diameter and around 2-4cm high without any visible stem or stipe. The flesh is orange when cut and the spore print is white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M02 Fly Agaric
M02 Fly Agaric
Les Jones

Family: Species: Amanita Muscaria

The most iconic of British fungi and one of the least likely to be confused with any other fungus. It is toxic and has the distinctive bright red cap with white scales found in a variety of woodland habitats.

When first erupting from the ground litter they are completely white and covered in spikey warts. As the cap grows and expand the bright red cap skin (pellicle) shows through until the cap consists of mainly red skin with the white wart scales more or less even distributed over the whole surface. The cap starts off convex but flattens with maturity and grows to 10-20cm and stands around 10-20cm high with a grooved white stem ring. The white wart scales can weather to leave just a red cap. The gills are white but gradually turn yellowish with maturity and the spore print is white.

Photograph from No1 Bed September 2012

 
M03 Amanita species

Family: Amanitaceae - Species: Amanita sp.

A species of Amanita, Agarics, was found which was not ‘muscaria’ (Fly Agaric) or ‘vaginata’ (Grisette).

 
M04 Grisette

Family:Amanitaceae - Species: Amanita vaginata

This is an infrequent and local mushroom in Britain found in July through to October

Initially egg shaped the caps expands to become flat, 5-10cm diameter, but always with a small raised central area (an umbo)and is grey coloured. The edge of the cap is striated (with comb-like radial ridges). Below the skin the flesh is white and firm and the gills are white. The stem height is 12-20cm and 1 to 1.5cm in diameter, tapering only slightly at the cap and is white or tinged with the grey cap colour. The stem usually becomes hollow as the fruiting body matures. There is no stem ring on this Amanita species however, at the base there is a large white sack-like volva. The spore print is white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M05 Honey Fungus

Family: Physalacriaceae - Species: Armilliaria mellea

Widespread and common throughout Britain, most noticeable in autumn.

The cap is between 5-15cm diameter and ranges from honey-yellow to red-brown but always with a darker area towards the centre. Initially convex the caps flatten and often develop wavy edges with maturity and when young fine scales cover the cap but do not always remain evident. The cap flesh is white and firm. The gills are flesh coloured turning yellowish and finally developing rusty spots with maturity. The stems are also white when young but fade yellowish to yellow-brown have a pale yellowish stem ring and are around 5-15mm in diameter and 5-15cm tall with a fine woolly surface. The spore print is very pale creamy white.

The name Honey Fungus has nothing to do with the taste, some records make reference to the colour of the fungus itself but collecting a few and tying them in a polythene bag and left in a dry warm place will reportedly replicate the smell of honey. They are also bioluminescent but very weakly so.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M06 Jelly Ear Fungus
M06 Jelly Ear Fungus
Brian Gort

Family: Auriculariaceae - Species: Auricularia auricula-judae

Fairly widespread and frequent in Britain, the Jelly Ear fungus is seen mainly, but not exclusively, on dead Elder wood in damp, shady locations. It is best looked for in late summer through autumn although they can be found all year round.

The outer surface of the lobed fruiting body is tan-brown with a purple tinge and covered in a fine greyish velvety down but the inner surface is smooth. Individual lobes grow between 3-10cm across. The spore print is white.

Photograph from No.3 Bed 01/04/2014

 
M07 Yellow Cow-pat Toadstool (Yellow Fieldcap)

Family: Bolbitiaceae - Species: Bolbitius vitellinus

This is one of the shortest lived fungus encountered and is common and widespread in Britain. It grows from a bright yellow egg shape emergence to a brown to pale-brown toadstool in less than a day and occurs on rotting hay, grasses and cow-pats and wood mulch in full sun or shade through most of the year

It has a yellow-dull brown cap, 1-4cm diameter, which is grooved/striated at the edges and has a clear sticky coating when young which quickly dries in the sun to a silky finish and turns grey with maturity before rotting away by the following day. The, gills yellow changing to cinnamon and a white/yellow stem which is between 2-4mm in diameter, hollow and very easily damaged with no ring. The spore print is cinnamon to rust-brown

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

 
M08 Calyptella capula

Family: Marasmiaceae - Species: Calyptella capula

Widely distributed but localised in England, tending to coastal regions in Wales and scarce in Scotland.

Found on wood and thick plant stems and on first sighting resemble small flowers more than a fungus as the fruiting bodies form clusters of pure white to yellowish cups and tapered funnels. They have a smooth outer surface and are around 1-3mm long and up to 4mm in diameter hanging on the underside of branches, twigs and stout stems or drooping from the shrub or plant stem itself.

Photograph – no Woolston image available

 
M09 Silver Leaf Fungus

Family: Meruliaceae - Species: Chondrostereum purpureum

The fungus, infrequent but widespread in Britain, attacks wood and is evident on the leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs, especially fruit trees, roses, Hawthorn, Poplar, Maple and Oak, which develop a silvery sheen in summer. Following the appearance of the silvery sheen, affected branches die. Can be detected by cutting across a branch showing the silvery leaf sheen, an irregular dark stain may be seen in the centre, not necessarily corresponding to the heartwood. The leathery fruiting bodies appear from late summer through autumn. These start as just a crust on the wood but develop into intergrowing brackets around 3cm broad being lilac to deep purple patches with white edges and fine pores on the under-surface.

Similar silvering symptoms may sometimes develop as a result of non-disease forms of stress. This is known as false silver leaf and can be told apart from true silver leaf by the absence of stain in the wood when cut.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M10 White Spindles

Family: Clavariaceae - Species: Clavaria fragilis

Widespread and fairly common in Britain on unimproved grassland type habitats, from June to November.

Simple white worm like protuberances around 2-10cm tall and 4-5mm across. These fingers are more often straight with rounded tips but can be slightly flattened, wavy and/or forked near the tip. Close examination will often reveal longitudinal grooves in the surface. The tips yellow with maturity and finally turn brown with age.The spore print is white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M11 Clavariadelphus fistulosus var. contorta

Family: Typhulaceae - Species: Clavariadelphus fistulosus var. contorta

Localised and rather rare in Britain. occurs on dead branches of living deciduous trees, especially Hazel and Birch over the winter period.

Is basically a simple club shaped fungus, occurring singularly or in tight clusters, which become twisted and irregular protuberances of pinkish-brown, pale-brown colour and around 4cm in height. Flesh is yellowish and firm.

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

 
M12 Tawny Funnel Cap

Family: Species: Clitocybe flaccida

Very widely distributed and common in Britain. Generally occurring in woodland habitats but can be found in rich humus soil conditions away from woodland. Typically an autumn fungus can be very late with fruiting bodies, sometimes in January. Is gregarious and forms large ‘fairy rings’.

The cap is convex, around 4 to 9cm diameter and later usually funnel shaped with a wavy in-rolled margin; smooth and matt; tawny or orange-brown. The caps turn paler as they gradually dry out, eventually becoming buff. Tawny Funnels that appear very late in the season sometimes have convex caps that do not develop central depressions - a cause of confusion. The gills start white but become tawny with age. The stem is 3-5cm high and around 0.5-1cm thick, downy at the base, no stem ring and slightly paler than the cap. Spore print is creamy-white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

 
M13 Butter Cap

Family: Marasmiacea - Species: Collybia butyracea

This is a widespread and common mushroom in Britain from autumn to early winter.

It gets its vernacular name, not from a visual aspect, but from the greasy, buttery, feel of the cap which is 3-7cm diameter and with a distinct centre bump, ‘umbo’. It is very variable in colour but is generally a ochre-brown, which pales with age and with a cream edge around the cap. The stems are tough and flexible around 1.5cm diameter and the same colour as the cap and has no ‘volva’ at the base or stem ring.

Photograph – no Woolston image available.

 
M14 A Cone-Head species

Family: Bolbitiaceae - Species: Conocybe sp.

Conocybe is a genus of mushrooms with Conocybe tenera as the ‘type’ species. Most are quite delicate with a long thin stem and a conical shaped cap and are collectively known as ‘cone-heads’ because of this.

They are common in more fertile habitats as grassland, moss, dung and decaying wood.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M15 Common Ink Cap

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus atramentarius

The ‘ink caps’ are named from the crude writing inks that were obtained from the decaying caps. Common Ink Caps are widely distributed and frequent in Britain from late summer through to early winter. They are found on a variety of decaying deciduous trees and buried wood.

They are usually found in clusters but can be solitary. The caps are grey to pale-brown, browner at the cap centre, around 3-7cm diameter, and are conical when young but flatten and disintegrate to a black inky fluid. The stem is white-grey, 15mm diameter and around 7-17cm tall and the gills are white-grey but rapidly turn black. The spore print is dark brown.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M16 Shaggy Incap

Family: Agaricaceae - Species: Coprinus comatus

This is a distinctive fungus which is unlikely to be confused with other fungus families. It is widespread and common in Britain from April to November.

The shaggy cap is a long, white cylinder with shaggy, upturned, brownish scales. The gills are whitish, turning pink then black before liquefying from the rim inwards. The entire mushroom is very fragile and crumbles easily. The older it gets, the shaggy part start to gradually dissolve into a black, inky fluid, leaving only the standing stalk. Grows to 10-15cm tall. The stem is 10-15mm thick, white, hollow and brittle with a white stem ring which often detaches and slips down the stem. The spore print is black.

Photograph - no woolston image available

 
M17 Trooping Crumble Cap

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus disseminatus

Very common and widespread in Britain, found from August to November and found in clusters, often very dense, massed around old stumps or buried wood of deciduous trees.

The cap starts as a conical bell with pleats, 5-15mm in diameter and stand 10-20mm high but flattens with maturity. They vary in colour only slightly from a pale buff-brown to clay grey and are very fragile and suit their synonym ‘Fairies Bonnets’. The gills start white, turn grey-brown and eventually black, but they do not dissolve into black ink as other Coprinoid mushrooms. The stem is white, bare, thin, hollow and easily damaged. The spore print is black.

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

 
M18 Glistening Inkcap
M18 Glistening Inkcap
Andy Weir

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus micaceous

Widespread and common in Britain, found from April to October associated with dead and buried wood.

This is a bell-shaped fungus which usually occurs in small groups with a cap reaching 20-40mm diameter, creamy-ochre coloured which darkens towards the centre and often has radial grooves. The cap is covered with a glistening powder. The gills are white when fresh becoming purple-brown and then black before liquefying. The stem is brittle and hollow, brownish at the base, around 5mm diameter and 4-10cm tall. The spore print is very dark-brown or black.

Photograph from No.3 Bed 05/10/2013

 
M48 Purple Brittlegill

Family Russulaceae - Species: Russula atropurpurea

Common fungus around woodlands throughout Britain especially under Oak and Pine trees.

A large mushroom with a cap around 4-10cm in diameter, convex at first then flattening and developing slightly depressed centes in maturity. They are reddish-purple around the cap rim (note: older specimens can be bleached of colour on the rim) deepening in colour to purple and very dark towards the center. The gills and thick even stem are white to creamy in colour. The spore print is ochre.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M49 Russula sp. (Red and Yellow Capped)

Family: Russulaceae - Species: Russula…

This family is notorious for pin-pointing the precise species from the 20-30 often referenced in field guides. Suffice it to say Russula are reddish but sometimes orangish or yellowish and no attempt to separate will be made in this summary.

The general species description is they have a convex to flat cap, around 8-10cm diameter, with white or creamy gills underneath and a smooth white stem around 10cm high and fairly even thickness of 2cm. The cap colour will be left as stated above. It is widely distributed and grows on damp humus, common around pine trees.

 
M50 Scarlet Elfcup
M50 Scarlet Elfcup
David Hackett

Family: Sarcoscyphaceae - Species: Sarcoscypha austriaca

Fairly frequent and widespread throughout Britain, found on fallen branches and twigs especially partly buried in moss, most abundant in late autumn and winter.

It forms a generally round but irregular shaped cup from 2-7cm diameter and 1-2cm high with the edges often curling inwards. The inside of the cup is bright red and smooth, the outside is paler and covered in fine hairs. Observed under strong magnification these are in the form of tangled coils which is diagnostic for this species. The related Ruby Elfcup has tangled straight hairs.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 05/02/2015

 
M51 Common Earth Ball

Family: Species: Scleroderma citrinum

A common fungus of woody and short grassland areas around 40 to 100mm in diameter found from July to December.

The roundish ball of the body has no stem and is initially whitish, cream or yellow and may turn brown or greenish on aging. It is covered with coarse scales of irregular shape and size. The body skin ruptures on maturity leaving an irregular opening from which the spores emerge via wind and rain assistance. Empty earthball skins can persist for months in sheltered locations. The inside of the ball is white at first, turning brown with white marbling before turning purple-brown throughout.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M52 Eyelash Cup

Family: Pyronemataceae - Species: Scutellina scutellata

Found on rotting wood and other humus rich damp habitats and is widespread and common in Britain from late spring to late autumn.

The visible fruiting bodies form small red cups, 3-10mm diameter, which open and flatten in maturity. They have distinctive long dark hairs, ‘eyelashes’ on the outer edge which are visible but clearly so under a magnifying glass. The cup center is orange-red and browner on the outside which is covered in stiff dark hairs up to 10mm in length which resemble eyelashes on the cup rim. The flesh is red and thin.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M53 Stereum species – not Rugosum

Family: Stereaceae - Species:

One of the fourteen Stereum species occurring in Britain which was not identified to a specific species.

They are simple small bracket shaped membranes appearing on dead wood. The underside contain spore but no gills as ‘cap and stem’ mushrooms. They can be split into two groups those which exude a reddish liquid (blood) at cut surfaces and those which do not.

 
M54 Verdigris Agaric

Family: Strophariaceae - Species: Stropharia ruginosa

This is one of only a few green-blue fungi and is very localised in Britain, mainly on alkaline humus.

The bell shaped caps are uniform coloured much nearer to green than blue and are very slimy when new and noticeably glossy, standing out amongst the general floor litter. With age they gradually flatten, size between 2.5-8cmm diameter, and the colour pales to brownish-tan from the centre outwards. Small white veil fragments can be seen on the cap and its rim, more noticeable in younger specimens. The stem is pretty much uniform in diameter up to the cap and has a brownish ring below which the stem is covered in fine white flakes/scales. Spore print is purple-black.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M55 Tar Spot

Family: Rhytismataceae - Species: Rhytisma acerinum

A very widespread, common and conspicuous fungus on Sycamore and other Maple leaves which does very little damage to the living tree but can cause premature leaf drop.

It appears initially as yellow blotches on the leaves in spring. These develop into slightly raised , shiny, black spots dotted over the leaf surface. The outer edge is usually bordered brown and is around 10-15mm across.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M56 Earth Fan

Family: Thelephoraceae - Species: Telephora terrestris

Usually associated with pine woods it does however occur with deciduous trees as Oak, Birch and Willow. It is widespread and common in Britain.

It resembles a rosette-like fan with the upper face reddish-brown to dark-brown, often paler at the margins and with darker banding in the rosette. There is no stem to speak of, a rudimentary one at best, and grows to 6 -15cm diameter. The underside of the rosette is lighter brown to mid-brown. The spore print is purple-brown.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M57 Yellow Brain

Family: Tremellaceae - Species: Tremella mesenterica

Principally found in the autumn-winter period on fallen deciduous trees and branches which has already been attacked from other wood rotting fungi and is widespread and common throughout Britain.

It is a bright yellow jelly fungus and mature specimens resemble the convoluted folds of a human brain sprouting from decaying wood. It is best looked for in wet weather as in dry spells it shrivels to a hard rubbery patch on the wood which is more difficult to pick out.

Photograph - no Woolston image is available

 
M58 Tricoloma species

One of the 50 known species of Tricoloma found in Britain which was not separated to a particular species.

The general characteristics of the family are; fleshy, white gilled mushrooms. The cap is often connected to the stem by means of a small notch. Colour varies from yellowish to greys and through to browns.

 
M59 Stubble Rosegill

Family: Species: Volvariella speciose

Fairly common throughout Britain. Occurs as single specimens or in groups associated with rich humus such as woody, grass and other organic mulch.

Has a white to greyish cap, paler at the cap edge graduating greyer and brownish to the centre. Initial bodies are ovoid, like an egg, but the cap becomes convex and even flattens around 5-10cm across. The cap is smooth but slimy when young, sticky when moist and silky when dry. The stem white, around 10-15mm diameter tapers towards the cap and is without a stem ring but retains a volva, baggy sac, at its base. Usually reaches around 50-90mm in height. When cut the flesh is white throughout. The spore print is pink.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

 
M60 Candle Snuff

Family: Species: Xylaria hypoxylon

This is an unmistakable fungus occurring in groups and is best looked for in the winter months. It is a fungus of dead and decaying wood, mainly deciduous but sometimes also pine.

A black fungus which throws up fingers up to 50mm through the substrata which develop white powdery tips from late autumn and over the winter period. These fruiting bodies branch to resemble ‘antlers’ or ‘candlestick’ forms as the fungus develops. On maturity, in early spring, the white coating disappears leaving the spikes/antlers all black.

This fungus is bioluminescent, although a very weak source and is also called, Candlestick Fungus and Antler Fungus, descriptions no doubt connected with their visual form.

Photograph - no Woolston image is available.

 

Woolston Eyes Flora and Fungi

FLORA

The following species list is certainly not exhaustive as indicated by recent small scale surveys in 1990 and 1995/6 when almost 50 additional species were recorded giving a total of 215. The list does not give any indication of the relative abundance of each species.

The fungi survey undertaken 2001/02

  1. The presence of a species is denotes by a “1” or a letter in the body of the table.
  2. The “80” list is taken from “AN ECOLOGICAL SURVEY”. The location of the plants was not given.
  3. The “MANAGEMENT PLAN” list was published in 1985 but compiled from data collected over an unkown period. The headings are as follows:
  • 1 to 4 - the number of the bed
  • B - flora on the area to the East of No.1 bed before it was lost to waste disposal.
  • W - flora present at Woolston but with the location not given
  1. The “83” list was abstracted from an article by D McNaughton published in the 1983 Annual Report.
  2. The “85” list was abstracted from three articles published in the 1985 Annual report:-
  • A from “Aquatic Flora and Fauna” by A Cook
  • B from “Butchersfield!” by D McNaughton
  • T from “Trees along the Mersey” by P J Nichols. It has been assumed that the trees were planted on the Eyes!
  1. The “90” list is from a survey carried out by the “CHESHIRE CONSERVATION TRUST Ltd”,(organised by Mrs E M Nall) on No.3 bed in the summer of 1990. The “N” indicates new species found on that bed and “1” confirmation of the species already mentioned in the “Management Plan” list.
  2. The “96” list shows the new/interesting species found in a survey carried out by Mrs R Martin in 1995-6.
  Management Plan  
Latin English 80 1 2 3 4 B W 83 85 90 96
Acer campestre Field Maple - - - - - - - - T - -
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore - - - - - - - - T N -
Achillea millefolium Yarrow 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Aegopodium podagraria Ground Elder - - - - - - - - - N -
Agropyron repens Couch Grass 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Agrostis canina Brown Bent Grass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Agrostis stolonifera Creeping Bent 1 - - - - - - - - - -
Agrostis tenuis Common Bent 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Algae ## Algae - - - - - - - - A - -
Alisma plantago-aquatica Water Plantain 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Alliaria petiolata Garlic Mustard - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Alnus glutinosa Alder - - - - - 1 - - T - -
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Angelica achangelica Garden Angelica - - - - - - - - - N -
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Arctium lappa Great Burdock 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Arenaria serpyllifolia Thyme-leaved Sandwort - - - - - - - - - - 1
Arrhenathrum elatius False Oat Grass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Artemesia vulgaris Mugwort 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Arum maculatum Lords and Ladies - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Asplenuim sp. Spleenwort - - - - - - - - - - 1
Bellis perennis Daisy - - - - - 1 - - - N -
Betula sp Birch - - - - - - - - T - -
Bidens cernua Nodding Bur Marigold - - - - - - - - - N -
Bidens tripartia Trifid Bur Marigold - - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Blackstonia perfoliata Yellow-wort - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Brassica napus Rape - - - - - - - - - N -
Brassica rapa Turnip 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Callitriche stagnalis ## Starwort - - - - - - - - A - -
Calystegia sepium Bellbine 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Campanula rotundirolia Harebell - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s Purse 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Cardamine flexuosa Wavy Bittercress - - - - - - - - - N -
Cardamine hirsuta Hairy Bittercress - - - - - - - - - - 1
Cardamine pratensis Lady’s Smock - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Carduus crispus Welted Thistle - - - - - - - - - N -
Carex acutiformis Lesser Pond Sedge - - - - - - - - - N -
Carex hirta Hairy Sedge 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Carex humilis Dwarf Sedge - - - - - - - - - - 1
Carex otrubae False Fox Sedge - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Carex pseudocyperus Cyperus sedge - - - - - - - - - N -
Centaurea nigra Hardheads (Knapweed) 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Centaurium erythraea Common Centuary - - - - - - 1 1 - - -
Cerastium fontanum Common Mouse-ear - - - - - - - - - - 1
Chamaenerion angustifolium Rosebay Willowherb 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Chenopodium album Fat Hen 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Ox-Eye Daisy 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Chrysanthemum vulgare Tansy 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Corylus avellana Hazel - - - - - - - - T - -
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - T 1 -
Creatophyllum ## Hornwort - - - - - - - - A - -
Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Dactylorhiza fuschii Common Spotted Orchid - - - - - 1 - - - - 1
Dactylorhiza Praetermissa Southern Marsh Orchid - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Dactylorhiza spp. Marsh Orchid - - - - - - - 1 - - 1
Daucus carota Wild Carrot - - - - - - - - - N -
Deschampsia caespitosa Tufted Hair Grass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Digitalis purpurea Foxglove - - - - - - 1 - - N -
Dipsacus fullonum Teasel - - - - - - - - - N -
Echium vulgare Viper’s Bugloss - - - - - - - - - - 1
Endymion non-scriptus Bluebell - - - - - - - 1 - N -
Epilobium adenocaulon American Willowherb 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Epilobium hirsutum Hairy Willowherb 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Epilobium palustre Marsh Willowherb 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Epilobium parviflorum Lesser Hairy Willowherb 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Equisetum arvense Common Horsetail 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp Agrimony - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Festuca rubra Red Fescue - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Fraxinus excelsior Ash - - - - - - - - T - -
Galium aparine Goosegrass 1 1 - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Geranium molle Dovesfoot Cranesbill - - - - - - - - - - 1
Glechoma hederacea Ground Ivy - - - - - - - - - N -
Glyceria maxima Reed Grass 1 - - - - - - - - N -
Glyceria rnaxima Reed Sweet Grass - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Gymnadensia conopsea Fragrant Orchid - - - - - - - - B - -
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Hieracium perpropinquum Leafy Hawkweeds - - - - - - - - - N -
Hieracium umbellatum Leafy Hawkweeds - - - - - - - - - N -
Holeus lanatus Yorkshire Fog 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Humulus lupulus Hop - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Hypericum perforatum Common St. John’s Wort 1 - 1 1 1 - - 1 - 1 -
Hypochaeris radicata Common Cat’s Ear - - - - - - - - - N -
Impatiens glandulifera Himalayan Balsam 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Iris pseudacorus Yellow Flag 1 1 1 1 - - - - - 1 -
Juncus articulatus Jointed Rush 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Juncus bufonius Toad Rush 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Juncus conslomeratus Compact Rush - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Juncus effusus Soft Rush 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Juncus inflexus Hard Rush 1 - - - 1 1 - - - - -
Lamium album White Dead-nettle - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Lamium purpureum Red Deadnettle - - - - - - - - - - 1
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling - - - - - - 1 - - N -
Lemna ## Duckweed - - - - - - - - A - -
Linaria vulgaris Toadflax 1 1 1 - 1 - - - - - -
Lolium multiflorum ltalian Ryegrass 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Lolium perenne Perennial Ryegrass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle - - - - - - - - T - -
Lotus corniculatus Birds Foot Trefoil 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Lotus uliainosus Greater Birds Foot Trefoil 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Luzula campestris Field Woodrush - - - - - - - - - - 1
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged Robin - - - - - - - - - - 1
Lycopus europaeus Gypsywort 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Malva moschata Musk Mallow 1 1 - - 1 1 - 1 B - -
Malva sylvestris Common Mallow 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - -
Matricaria recutita Wild Clematis 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Medicago lupulina Black Medick - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Melilotus alba White Melilot 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Melilotus officinalis Ribbed Mellilot - - - - - - - - - - 1
Mimulus guttatus Monkey Musk - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Myosotis arvensis Field Forget-me-not - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Numex crispus Curled Dock - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Oenanthe crocata Hemlock Water Dropwort 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Oenothera erythrosepala Evening Primrose 1 - 1 - 1 - - - - - -
Ophrys apifera Bee Orchid - - - - - - - - - - 1
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip - - - - - - - - - - 1
Petasites hybridus Butterbur 1 - 1 1 1 1 - - - - -
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Grass 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Phleum pratense Timothy 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Phragmites australis Common Reed 1 1 1 1 - - - - - 1 -
Phylitis scolopendrium Hartstongue - - - - - - - - - - 1
Plantago lanceolata Ribwort Plantain 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Plantago major Great Plantain 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Poa annua Annual Meadow Grass 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Poa pratensis Smooth Meadow Grass 1 - - - - - 1 - - N -
Poa trivialis Rough meadow grass - - - - - - - - - N -
Polygonum amphibium Amphibious Bistort 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Polygonum aviculare Knotgrass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Polygonum bistorta Bistort - - - - - - - 1 - - -
Polygonum cuspidatum Japanese Polygonum 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Polygonum persicaria Redleg - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Populus alba Poplar - - - - - - - - T - -
Potentilla anglica Trailing Tormentil 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Primula vulgaris Primrose - - - - - - - - B - -
Prunella vulgaris Self-heal - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Quercus spp Oak - - - - - 1 - - T - -
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Ranunculus aquatilis Water Crowfoot 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Ranunculus sceleratus Celeryleaved Crowfoot 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Reseda luteola Weld 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Ribes sanguineum Flowering Currant - - - - - - - - - - 1
Rorippa islandica Marsh Yellow Cress 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Rosa canina agg. Dog Rose - - - - - - - - - N -
Rubus fruticosa agg. Blackberry 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Rubus idaeus Raspberry - - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Rumex acetosa Sorrel - - - - - - - - - N -
Rumex acetosella Sheep’s Sorrel 1 - - - 1 1 - - - - -
Rumex crispus Curled Dock 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Rumex obtusifolius Broad Leaved Dock 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Sagina procumbens Pearlwort 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Salix caprea Goat Willow 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Salix cinerea Common Sallow 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Salix fragilis Crack Willow 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Salix viminalis Osier 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Sambucus nigra Elder - - - - - - - - T - -
Sanguisorba minor Salad Burnet - - - - - - - - - - 1
Saponaria offincinalis Soapwort - - - - - - - - - - 1
Sarothamnus scoparius Broom 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Scilla hispanica Spanish Bluebell - - - - - - - - - - 1
Scrophularia nodosa Figwort 1 - 1 1 - 1 - - - 1 -
Scutellaria galericulate Common Skullcap - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Sedum acre Biting Stonecrop - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Senecio jacobaea Ragwort 1 - - 1 1 - - - B 1 -
Senecio squalidus Oxford Ragwort 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Senecio viscosus Stinking Groundsel 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Senecio vulgaris Groundsel 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Silene alba White Campion 1 1 - 1 1 - - - - - -
Silene alba x dioica   1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Silene dioica Red Campion 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Sisyrinchium bermudiana Blue Eyed Grass - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Solanum dulcamara Woody Nightshade 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Sonchus aleraceus Sow Thistle - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Sonchus arvensis Field Milk Thistle 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Sonchus asper Spring Sow Thistle 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Sonchus oleraceus Sow Thistle 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Sorbus aria Whitebeam - - - - - - - - T - -
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan - - - - - - - - T N -
Spergula arvensis Corn Spurry 1 - - - 1 - - - - - 1
Stachys palustris Marsh Woundwort 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort - - - - - - - 1 - - -
Stellaria media Common Chickweed - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey - - - - - - - - - - 1
Taraxacum officinale agg. Dandelion 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Tilia platyphyllos Lime - - - - - - - - T - -
Tragopogon pratensis Goat’s Beard - - - - - - - - - - 1
Trifolium campestre Hop trefoil - - - - - - - - - N -
Trifolium dubium Lesser Yellow Trefoil 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Trifolium medium Zig-zag Clover 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Trifolium pratense Red Clover 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Trifolium repens White Clover 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Tripleurospermum maritimum Scentless Mayweed 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Tussilago farfare Coltsfoot 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Typha latifolia Great Reedmace 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Ulex europaeus Gorse 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Ulmus spp Elm - - - - - - - - T - -
Urtica dioca Stinging Nettle 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Verbascum thapsus Yellow Rattle - - - - - - - - - - 1
Veronica beccabunga Brooklime - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Veronica sepyllifolia Thyme-leaved Speedwell - - - - - - - - - - 1
Viburnum opulus Guelder Rose - - - - - - - - T - -
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Vicia hirsuta Hairy Tare - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Vinca major Periwinkle - - - - - - - - - - 1
Visum album Mistletoe - - - - - - - - T - -
Xubus idaeus Raspberry - - 1 - - - - - - - -

Fungi

We are indebted to the Rochdale Field Naturalists for the following information. They made two visits to the reserve in 2001, and a further visit last November. The main areas covered were the lower footpath between no2 and no3 beds, the woodland adjacent to the footbridge /canal and on the island itself. Fungi were more scarce due to poor weather conditions last autumn.

Combined list of fungi 2001-2002

   Aleuria   aurantia            Orange Peel Fungus
               Amanita Muscaria            Fly Agaric
               Amanita species (but not Grisette)  
               Amanita  vaginata            Grisette
               Armillaria  mellea             Honey Fungus
               Auricularia  auricula-judae            Jews Ear
               Bolbitius   vitellinus            Yellow  Cow-pat  Toadstool
               Calyptella   capula  
               Chondrostereum purpureum            Silver-leaf Fungus
               Clavaria vermicularis            White Spindles
               Clavariadelphus fistulosus            (a  club-fungus  on wood in leaf-litter)
                                                   var. contorta            (found on twigs and contorted)
               Clitocybe flaccida            Tawny Funnel Cap
               Clitocybe species  
               Collybia butyracea            Buttercap
               Conocybe species  
               Coprinus atramentarius            Common Ink Cap
               Coprinus comatus            Shaggy Ink Cap or Lawyers Wig
               Coprinus disseminatus            Trooping Crumble Cap
               Coprinus micaceous            Glistening Ink Cap
               Coprinus  plicatilis            Japanese Parasol  Toadstool       
               Crepidodus variabilis      
               Dacrymyces stillatus  
               Daedalopsis  confragosa             Blushing Bracket
               Galerina hypnorum  
               Hebeloma species  
               Laccaria  amethystea            Amethyst Deceiver
               Laccaria    laccata                Deceiver
               Lactarius  quietus            Oak Milk Cap
               Lactarius turpis            Ugly Milk Cap
               Lepiota procera            Parasol Mushroom
               Lepista nuda            Wood Blewit
               Lycogala epidendrum            (one of the slime moulds)
               Lycoperdon perlatum            a Puffball
               Lycoperdon pyriforme  
               Lyophyllum decastes  
               Marasmius species  
               Melanoleuca species  
               Mycena fibula  
               Mycena leucogala  
               Nectria cinnabarina            Coral spot fungus
               Neobulgaria pura  
               Panaeolas foenisecii  
               Paxillus involutus            Brown Roll Rim
               Phellinus ferreus           (a rust-coloured crust)
               Pholiota squarrosa            Shaggy Pholiota
               Pleurotus ostreatus            Oyster Mushroom
                Psathyrella species  
               Pseudotrametes  gibbosa                                      
                Russula  atropurpurea  
                Russula species    (both yellow and red capped)
               Scleroderma citrinum       Common Earth Ball
                Scutellina scutellata       Eyelash Fungus
                Stereum Species       (not Rugosum)
                Stropharia aeruginosa       Verdigris Agaric
                Tar spot fungus on sycamore leaves
                 Thelephora  terrestis         Earth Fan
                Tremella   mesenterica        Yellow Brain Fungus
                 Tricoloma  species
                 Volvariella speciosa
                 Xylaria hypoxylon       Candle Snuff   Fungus
 

Latest Sighting

2017-11-16

An atmospheric, mid-afternoon till dusk visit to No.3 bed today. I was hoping that some autumn/winter roosts would be starting to form and wasn’t disappointed. On arrival at the Morgan Hide, with the bed to myself, there were plenty of waterbirds present, with counts of: 158 Teal, 9 Shelducks, 24 Read more...

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