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Flora and Fungi at Woolston Eyes

This section of the website identifies the Flora - Flowers, Shrubs, Trees, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, Mosses, Liverworts and Fungi - which have been located and identified on the Reserve. The order of viewing is;

Flowers recorded on the Reserve

Shrubs & Trees recorded on the Reserve

Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Typha recorded on the Reserve

Mosses & Liverworts recorded on the Reserve

Fungi recorded on the Reserve

Lists of the species recorded can be viewed by clicking on the bold headings above.

Systematic list of the Flowers of Woolston Eyes

The list of Flowers includes everything which is not a shrub, tree, grass, sedge, rush, typha, moss, liverwort or fungi.

Click on an image to enlarge it


David Riley

001 Hop

Humulus lupulus

An unusual plant to be found on the Reserve, possibly a remnant of past cultivation or seeding from the dredging desposits.

A tall climbing perennial, up to 6m, with male, branched yellowish-green flower clusters and globular female flower clusters on separate plants. The fruit is the familiar pale green cone-like structure. Close examination will show a square stem and clockwise twining. With broadly heart-shaped deeply 3 or 5 lobed strongly toothed leaves the flowering period is July to September.

Photograph is of male flower from No.2 Bed on 09/08/2017 growing through Bramble which is acting as the support - female plants can produce male flowers if stressed but only the female flowers develop into the familiar Hop cone.


John Blundell

002 Common Nettle

Urtica dioica

Known by its other common name, Stinging Nettle, this plant is widespread throughout the Reserve and universally recognised, once stung.

A medium to tall plant with generally heart shaped strongly toothed leaves, the small yellowish-green flowers form drooping clusters from the base of the upper leaves from June to September.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 18/06/2018

003 Mistletoe

Viscum album

Rare in the centre of the Reserve but has been noted on the banks of the River Mersey.

A parasitic plant found on tree boughs, typical hosts being apple and popular. Has pairs of leathery pale yellow-green leaves in a well branched form, typically spherical looking. The green flowers are small and insignificant from February to April but the white fruiting berry from November to February is very recognised with its association with Christmas.

No Woolston image available.

004 Bistort

Polygonum bistorta

A common plant on the Reserve, found in the damper and moisture retentive areas.

A medium tall plant with smooth unbranched stems and blunt triangular shaped, stalked, lower leaves but small triangular upper leaves which ‘sheath’ the stem. The flower head is a solitary dense cylindrical spike of individual flowers circa 40mm long from June to October.

No Woolston image available.

005 Amphibious Bistort

Polygonum amphibium

Prefers its roots in water which is where it is found on the Reserve at the water margins of ponds and ditches.

A sprawling perennial floating and hairless, with rooting nodes at leaf junctions. Leaves oblong and do not taper at the base as in Bistort above. The flower head is a dense spike of small pink flowers similar to Bistort from June to September.

No Woolston image available.


Dave Bowman

006 Redshank

Polygonum persicaria

Widespread over the Reserve on bare and recently disturbed ground, especially close to water.

A sprawling branched annual with lnceolate leaves, typically with a dark centre spot either side of the mid-rib. Pink to whitish flower spike from June to October which develop to glossy black seeds.

Photograph from No3. Bed 21/09/2014

007 Knotgrass

Polygonum aviculare

Widespread around the Reserve on poor soil and bare ground.

A low sprawling branched annual with lanceolate leaves reducing in size up the stem with noticeable stipules which also sheath the stem giving an overall zig-zag appearance. The small pink to whitish flowers are usually solitary at the base of the upper leaves from June to October.

No Woolston image available.

008 Japonese Knotweed

Reynoutria japonica (Polygonum cupsidatum)

Found on the Reserve in a few isolated stands.

A large invasive perennial difficult to eradicate and forming dense stands up to 2m. Stout hollow stems with reddish hue and zigzag appearance. Leaves are broad triangular with wide base from which the loosely clustered and branched white flower spikes rise in August to October.

No Woolston image available.

009 Sorrel

Rumex acetosa

Common plant, abundant around the Reserve.

Short to tall perennial, with arrow head shaped leaves, the lower stalked but the upper leaves much smaller and clasping the stem. The flower head is loosely branched with reddish-green-yellow flowers in whorls from May to August.

No Woolston image available.

010 Sheep's Sorrel

Rumex acetosella

Similar plant to the Common Sorrel found on bare dry areas.

This is a short perennial again with arrow head shaped narrow leaves but the lower larger leaf lobes curve forward rather than point backward in Common Sorrel. The flower head is similarly little branched with reddish-green-yellow flowers arranged in whorls up the spike from May to August.

No Woolston image available.

011 Broad-leaved Dock

Rumex obtusifolius

Common throughout the Reserve.

A tall perennial plant of uncultivated, bare and disturbed ground. The leaves are large and broadly oblong, the lower rounded or heart shaped at the base. Flowers from June to October, the spikes consisting of small reddish-green-yellow flowers arranged in whorls up the branched stems.

No Woolston image available.

012 Curled Dock

Rumex crispus

Much less common than the Broad-leaved Dock but localised over the Reserve.

Very similar looking plant to the Broad-leaved Dock but the leaves are narrower and exhibit wavy edges and merge into the stalk without the obvious rounded heart shaped base.

No Woolsto image available.

013 Fat Hen

Chenopodium album

Widespread on the Reserve.

Tall green plant covered in a silvery-grey mealy covering and often reddish hued stem. Leaves are variable being diamond to lanceolate and generally toothed. Flowers are green forming dense clusters originating from the upper leaf joints from June to October.

No Woolston image available.


Dave Bowman

014 Many Seeded Goosefoot

Chenopodium polyspermum

Recorded on No3. Bed in the bird feed meadow.

A variable plant, erect or spreading in nature, hairless with oval leaves generally untoothed. Stems often reddish and square, flowers greenish in dense and loose clusters July to October.

Photograph of a plant in seed from No3 Bed North Meadow 21/09/2014

015 Thyme-leaved Sandwort

Arenaria serpyllifolia

First recorded in the survey of 1995-96 by Rosalind Martin.

A sprawling prostrate hairy annual found in dry bare places. Leaves are oval, unstalked and opposite on the stems. Flowers white, 5-8mm set against green sepals and yellow anthers from April to November.

No Woolston image available.

016 Greater Stitchwort

Stellaria holostea

Found in shadier places, hedges, banks, wood margins on heavier soil.

Short straggly perennial, square stems, leaves narrow and lanceolate in pairs and unstalked. Flowers white, gap between each showing green sepal beneath, 5 petalled each deeply cleft 20-30mm across in spring, generally April to June.

No Woolston image available

017 Common Chickweed

Stellaria media

Found throughout the Reserve in bare, disturbed ground and margins on poorer soils.

Variable branched straggling low or prostrate annual. Leaves oval, upper unstalked lower stalked in pairs. Flowers small 5-10mm in loose branched clusters, 5 petalled each deeply cleft, almost bi-lobed, and usually shorter or equal in length to the green sepals which are clearly visible between each petal. Flowers February through to December.

No Woolston image available

018 Common Mouse-ear

Cerastium fontanum

Found in grassy areas, disturbed ground and poorer soil areas throughout the Reserve.

A variable, spreading to erect perennial slightly hairy all over with leafy non-flowering shoots. Leaves in pairs, lanceolate. Flowers April to November, white, 5 petalled, deeply cleft, green sepals clearly show between usually shorter or equal length petals.

No Woolston image available

019 Corn Spurrey

Spergula arvensis

Found on poorer soils, track margins, bare and disturbed ground on the Reserve.

Short to medium hairy annual, often sticky feeling. Leaves linear in whorls around stem. Flowers generally May to September, white, 5 petalled, in loose stalked clusters, green sepals clearly visible between longer petals.

No Woolston image available.

020 Procumbent Pearlwort

Sagina procumbens

Found in bare, disturbed areas, poor soil margins along tracks and paths throughout the Reserve.

Low hairless tufted perennial which spreads from a non-flowering rosette. Leaves linear, ending in a short bristle in whorls around stem. Flowers tiny greenish-white on long stalks, usually 4 petalled much shorter than the 4 sepals which frame them.

No Woolston image available.


Dave Hackett

021 Red Campion

Siliene dioica

Widespread across the Reserve on grassy or woody margins, shady hedgerows, banks and disturbed ground.

Medium tall perennial, softly hairy, leaves pointed oval, flowers bright pink to light shades, five cleft petals, white stamen and flower centre sit above a swollen calyx often upper plant has an overall reddish hue..

Photograph from No3 Bed 18/05/2014

022 White Campion

Siliene alba

Found in hedges, woody margins, grassy margins, banks, bare and disturbed ground around the Reserve.

Very similar to Red Campion, medium tall hairy perennial, lower leaves ovate and stalked, upper more lanceolate, narrow and unstalked. Flowers 20-30mm across white with 5 cleft petals which sit above a swollen calyx.

No Woolston image available


Dave Hackett

023 Ragged Robin

Lychnis flos-cuculi

Found in isolated outcrops in damp grassy, marshy places on the Reserve, roughly May to August.

Medium tall perennial, leaves narrow lanceolate in pairs, flowers pink, 5 irregularly and narrowly 4-lobed petals providing the plant its ‘ragged’ title.

Photograph from No2 Bed 20/06/2013

024 Soapwort

Saponaria officinalis

Found in hedges, woody/scrubby margins, banks, ditches and waysides in isolated pockets.

Medium to tall hairless perennial, leaves lanceolate/elliptical in unstalked pairs. Many flowered inflorescence of large soft pink flowers, 5 petals, un-notched and shortly stalked standing above the sepals. Highly likely originates from garden escapes.

No Woolston image available

025 Meadow Buttercup

Ranunculus acris

Found across the Reserve in grassy places including damp areas and track margins.

Medium tall hairy perennial with variable palmately lobed toothed leaves, more deeply divided on upper leaves than lower. Flowers April to November, golden yellow in terminal branched clusters around 15-25mm across, 5 petalled forming a cup shape above the much shorter sepals.

No Woolston image available

026 Creeping Buttercup

Rannuculus repens

Very common across the Reserve in grassy areas, banks, waysides, woody margins and damp places.

Has runners which root at the nodes allowing the plant to ‘creep’ across a suitable area. Flowering stems, May to September, are erect, low to medium height with glossy yellow flowers 15-25mm across, 5 petalled on grooved stalks form a cup shape above reflexed sepals. Leaves are triangular at base divided into 3 stalked segments which are further divided into 3 toothed lobes, upper leaves are smaller and less divided.

No Woolston image available

027 Lesser Celandine

Ranunculus ficaria

Found in shadier and moist/damp places, woods, ditches, base of banks marshy margins.

Low Perennial and early flowering, February to May. Has distinctive triangular heart shaped stalked leaves. Flowers, stalked, bright pale yellow 15-25mm across, usually 8 narrow petalled giving an open star effect over 3 green sepals.

No Woolton image available

028 Celery-leaved Buttercup

Ranunculus sceleratus

Found with its roots in water, boggy, marshy areas.

An almost smooth plant, medium high, branched with a stout but hollow stem. Lower leaves are deeply 3 lobed, these lobes further lobed and toothed, upper leaves lanceolate sparsely toothed lobes. Flowers May to September are small, 5 to 10mm across, 5 petalled. Fruiting head is Ovoid and large in comparison to the flower size.

No Woolston image available

029 Common Water-crowfoot

Ranunculus aquatilis

Found in permanent freshwater pools, drain ditches etc.

A surface floating plant with thread-like submerged leaves with or without rounded lobed floating leaves. Flowers, April to August, on single stalks generally less than 50mm long are large, white with yellow base, 5 petalled. Flower stalks are generally less than 50mm long and shorter than the opposed leaf stalk, a separating characteristic from Pond Water-crowfoot.

No Woolston image available


David waterhouse

030 Wood Anenome

Anemone nemorosa

Found in shady places in woody areas, amongst hedges and thickets.

A low perennial, hairless with a single white (sometimes pinkish hue) flower 20 to 40mm across and yellow anthers to the stamen. Leaves are stalked and deeply lobed, characteristically three lobes arranged in a whorl of three leaves below the flower which is from around March to May.

Photograph from No3. Bed 29/03/2014

031 Wild Turnip

Brassica rapa

Can be found on all four beds in isolated pockets.

A tall annual/biennial. Root leaves pinnately lobed, bright green and bristly hairy, the stem leaves are bluish-green lanceolate and clasping. Flowers are yellow approx.15-20mm across, generally 4 petalled but variable and less than 10mm, stalked in a spike flowering from the bottom up. Lower flowers often hide growing buds at tip giving a flat top appearance. Seed pods long and slender, green turning brown.

No Woolston image available

032 Rape

Brassica napus

Highly likely originates from surrounding cultivated farmland at eastern end of the Reserve.

Compare with 031 Wild Turnip, basal leaves less bristly, plant overall more bluish, flowers do not over top the young buds, petals 10-20mm.

No Woolston image available

033 Cuckoo Flower (Lady's Smock)

Cardamine pratensis

Found in damp grassy places and margins.

Erect medium tall hairless perennial. Basal leaves form rosette pinnate with up to 7 pairs elliptical rounded leaflets and a larger terminal leaflet. Upper leaves dissimilar with more numerous and very narrow leaflets. Flowers April to June, from lilac to whitish, 15-20mm across, stalked, 4 petalled, veined with sepals erect clasping base of flower.

No Woolston image available

034 Hairy Bittercress

Cardamine hirsute

Disturbed/open ground, poor or shallow soil areas, track sides, waste ground etc.

A low to short hairy annual plant, centre rosette of pinnate leaves with up to 7 pairs leaflets and larger terminal leaflet. Single straight stems or branched from base, few stem leaves smaller and narrowly pinnate. Flowers small white less than 5mm across, 4 petals which are shorter than underlying sepals. Seed pods erect, long and slender.

No Woolston image available

035 Wavy Bittercress

_** Cardamine flexuosa**_

Very similar to 034 Hairy Bittercress but prefers damper ground has ‘wavy’ stems, rosette leaves with up to 15 leaflets per leaf and 6 stamens were Hairy Bittercress has 4.

No Woolston image available

036 Shepherd's Purse

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Very common weed found across the Reserve in grassy, bare, disturbed and rough margin areas.

A highly variable generally short annual plant, Basal rosette of lanceolate pinnately lobed leaves generally deeply toothed, upper leaves alternate, lanceolate, smaller clasping stems. Flowers generally February to November but can be all year, white, very small to 5mm across, 4 petals longer than sepals. Seed pod distinctive inverted triangle with two keeled halves and centre notch.

No Woolston image available

037 Weld

Reseda luteola

A plant of disturbed and waste ground, stony and sandy places, track margins.

An erect branched biennial hairless plant to over a metre high. Leaves lanceolate, untoothed often wavy edged. Flowers June to September, yellow-green almost stalkless, small up to 5mm across, 4 unequal sized petals, the upper deeply divided, 4 sepals and 3 carpels in long slender terminal spikes. Seed pods are globular.

No Woolston image available

038 Biting Stonecrop

Sedum acre

Found on dry stony and sandy places, track margins in isolated outcrops.

A low blanket forming perennial, creeping stems and erect, branched flowering stems up to 100mm high. Leaves small, 3-6mm, cylindrical, broadest at base, fleshy, hairless tightly packed on stem giving scale like appearance. Flowers May to July, bright yellow, circa 12mm across, 5 petals in a flat star shaped arrangement. Taste is peppery.

No Woolston image available

039 Meadowsweet

Filipendula ulmaria

Found in woods, scrub, especially damper places frequently in water margins, ditches, marshes, wet grassland and swampy places.

A tall plant 0.5-1.0 metre with leafy stems. Leaves downy and pale underneath, pinnate, long stalked with 2-5 pairs of toothed leaflets and small leaflets alternate between them. Flowers June-September in much branched dense clusters of small 5-6 petalled creamy individual flowers, fragrant.

No Woolston image available

040 Salad Burnet

Sanguisorba minor

Very isolated in dry grassy places on lime rich soils.

Short to medium greyish looking almost hairless perennial. Leaves pinnate, basal in a rosette, upper containing 4-12 pairs of rounded to elliptical toothed leaflets plus terminal leaflet all of similar size not larger towards the terminal leaflet. Flowers May to September, globular head of small petal less individuals green with purple tinge, upper with red styles and lower with yellow stamens.

No Woolston image available

041 Dog Rose

Rosa canina

Found in hedges, bramble stands, banks and scrub.

Variable in size with stems arching to 3 metres. Bush forming when supported by other vegetation, shorter and spreading if self supported. Stem thorns curved back to plant base to aid climbing and plant support. Pinnate leaves with 2-3 pairs of toothed leaflets and a terminal leaf, hairless but can be downy underneath. Flowers June-August, 40-50mm across pink or whitish, 5 petals in a flattened cup and faint with sweet smell.

No Woolston image available


John Blundell

042 Bramble

Rubus fruticosus

A vigorous and scrambling dense patch forming woody biennial, variable in size, spreading via rooting runners is found all over the Reserve.

Heavily protected with thorns on all stems, stalks and even leaf midribs. Leaves prickly with 3-5 leaflets, stalked. Flowers 20-30mm 5 petalled white sometimes pinkish. Fruit develops from green to red then purple-black when ripe. The familiar blackberry.

Photograph from No1 Bed 18/06/2018

043 Raspberry

Rubus idaeus

Fairly common on the Reserve in isolated stands.

Unbranched erect, to over 1 metre, perennial with weakly thorned smooth stems. Fruit develops on biennial woody stems. Leaves with 3-5 ovate-lanceolate toothed stalked leaflets. Flowers May to August, always white, 5 petals 20mm across held in a semi erect cupped shape. Fruit, a red globular berry made from numerous druplets each with a tiny hair.

No Woolston image available

044 Wild Strawberry

- Fragaria vesca

045 Trailing Tormentil

Potentilla anglica

Found in grassy places, track sides, banks.

Perennial with persistent basal rosette of leaves and trailing stems up to 800mm rooting at leaf nodes. Lower leaves with 5 toothed leaflets. Flowers June to September, yellow with generally 4 petals and sepals but some have 5 circa 15mm across solitary stalked.

No Woolston image


John Blundell

046 Creeping Cinqfoil

Potentilla reptans

Found on grassy margins and bare waste places especially on hard track edges around the Reserve.

Low creeping with stems often reddish and up to 1 metre, rooting at leaf junctions. Leaves commonly have five leaflets but up to seven can occur with untoothed stipules and stem leaves stalked. Flowers are bright yellow solitary with five petals and sepals, compare with Tormentil which commonly have four. Flowers approx. June to September.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 01/07/2018 along the hard track onto the bed


John Blundell

046 Gorse

Ulex europaeus

Evergreen, heavily spiny, shrub to approx. 2m high forming dense patches. Widespread on the Reserve in isolated pockets, some large, on banks, track edges and grassy places.

Leaves are rigid spines surrounding woody stems. Flowers two lipped (wings and keel) golden-yellow in stalked spikes and noticeable almond scented. Can flower at all times of the year but generally from February to October.

Photograph from No1 Bed 2014

047 Tufted Vetch

- Vicia cracca

048 Bush Vetch

- Vicia sepium

049 Hairy Tare

- Vicia hirsuta

050 Meadow Vetchling

Lathyrus pratensis

051 Ribbed Melilot

- Melilotus officinalis

052 White Melilot

- Melilotus alba


David Waterhouse

053 Birdsfoot Trefoil

- Lotus corniculatus

Photograph from No3 Bed 13/07/2014

054 Greater Birdsfoot Trefoil

- Lotus uliginosus

055 Black Medick

- Medicago lupulina

056 Lesser Trefoil

- Trifolium dubium

057 Hop Trefoil

- Trifolium campestre


Dave Riley

058 Red Clover

Trifolium pretense

Widespread across the Reserve in shorter grassy areas and track edges.

Variable erect/low hairy perennial. Unmistakable three leaved leaflets often with whitish crescent present. Flowerheads globular, usually unstalked, 20 to 40mm across of varying shades of pink-purple, May-October. Flowers develop into brown seed heads.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 15/06/2018 shows typical flower and adjacent seed head

059 Zigzag Clover

- Trifolium medium


John Blundell

060 White Clover

Trifolium repens

A low creeping perennial with trefoil leaves more or less hairless. The leaflets often have a white crescent mark. Flowerheads white globular (sometimes pinkish) and long stalked around 15-30mm across.

Widespread across the Reserve, favours shorter grassy areas, edges of paths and tracks. Flowers May-November.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 18/06/2018

061 Dovesfoot Cranesbill

- Geranium molle


John Blundell

062 Himalayan Balsam

Impatiens glandulifera

An extremely invasive tall plant which forms dense patches shielding out others and is found throughout the Reserve on banks, gullies shady and reedbed margins.

Tall annual, to over 2m, stems hollow, often reddish with swellings at leaf nodes, leaves opposite in fours or in threes, oval with small reddish teeth. Flowers large in loose clusters, two lipped, dark pink to lighter shades with short bent spur at the rear. Seeds swell and explode when touched or plant shaken.

Photograph from No1 Bed 2014

063 Common Mellow

- Malva sylvestris


John Blundell

064 Musk Mallow

Malva moschata

Found around the Reserve in grassy places, scrub and track margins.

A medium to tall perennial with notably deeply and narrowly cut leaves separates it from the other common Mallows. Flowers are rose-pink 30-60mm across five petalled on unbranched stalks. Flowers July-August in grassy places, scrub margins and track edges.

Potograph from No.1 Bed 01/07/2018

065 Perforate St. John's Wort

Hypericum perforatum

Found in grassy places and waysides. Likes lime rich places.

Medium tall perennial with two raised lines, wings, down stem. Leaves oval in alternate pairs with translucent dots clearly visible when held up against the light. Flowers in loose branched clusters July-September, yellow, 5 petals to 20mm across with black dots along the margin, sepals pointed sometimes also black dotted.

No Woolston image available


Dave Hackett

066 Large-flowered Evening Primrose

Oenothera erythrosepala

Found on sandy places, waste ares, dry banks, track edges.

An erect annual/biennial to over 1 metre tall, hairy stem with red blotches and hairs and red staining and lines on calyx. Leaves broadly lanceolate, crinkled with pale mid-rib. Flowers June to September, yellow, 4 petals circa 30-50mm long held in an open saucer shape in loose clusters at the tops of the flowering stems.

Photograph from No3 Bed 17/07/2013

067 Great Willowherb

Epilobium hisutum

Found in waste places, prefers damp, ditch banks and edges, water margins, reedy and marshy areas.

Erect, tall perennial to over 1 metre tall with erect hairy stems. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, mostly opposite the upper clasping the stem. Flowers July to September, purplish-pink, 4 petals, 15-20mm across, shallowly notched with white centres extenuated by white anthers and pale stamen. Flowers stalked, emanate from upper leaf axials in loose clusters. Seed pod is long slender reddish hued sheath.

No Woolston image available

068 Hoary Willowherb

Epilobium parviflorum

Found in disturbed ground but prefers damper places, ditch banks and edges, water margins and marshy areas.

Erect, usually woolly hairy on lower stem, little branched perennial to over 1 metre tall. Leaves lanceolate, wedge shaped at base and weakly toothed, alternate on upper stem. Flowers July to September, pale purplish-pink, 4 petals, 6-9mm long, deeply notched with green sepals clearly showing through gaps on flower head.

No Woolston image available

069 American Willowherb

- Epilobium adenocaulon

070 Marsh Willowherb

- Epilobium palustre


John Blundell

071 Rosebay Willowherb

- Epilobium angustifolium

Tall, forming dense patches. Pinky-purple flowers with white stamens, 20-30mm, held in a triangular spiked raceme. Leaves are lanceolate and alternate decreasing in size up the flower stalk. Flowers May-September. Widespread across the Reserve in loose and large dense stands.

Stitched photograph of flower head from No1 Bed 18/06/2018 and flower patch from No3 Bed June 2016

072 Wild Carrot

- Daucus carota

073 Ground Elder

- Aegopodium podagraria


Douglas Buchanan

074 Hogweed

- Heracleum sphondylium

Photograph from No3 Bed 19/01/2014

075 Giant Hogweed

- Heracleum mantegazzianum

076 Angelica

- Angelica sylvestris

077 Garden Angelica

- Angelica archangelica

078 Hemlock Water Dropwort

- Oenanthe crocata

079 Wild Parsnip

- Pastinaca sativa


Dave Hackett

080 Primrose

- Primula vulgaris

Photograph from No3 Bed 05/03/2014

081 Greater Periwinkle

- Vinca major


Dave Riley

082 Common Centaury

- Centaurium erythraea

Favours well drained grassy places often sandy.

Variable low/short annual with elliptical leaves in a basal rosette but with a few stem leaves which are opposite, narrower and shorter. Flowers are pink, 5 petalled, almost unstalked, usually in a tightly packed clusters but occasionally singular or pairs. Leaves are 3 to 7 veined. June to September.

Photograph from Ni.1 Bed 13/06/2018

083 Yellow-wort

- Blackstonia perfoliata


John Blundell

084 Hedge Bindweed

- Calystegia sepium

Creeping and climbing perennial to 3 metres or more. More or less hairless all over with large arrow shaped stalked leaves. Flowers are white, rarely pink, 30-35mm across. Two large but not overlapping bracts enclose the 5 narrower sepals. Compare Great Bindweed with larger 60-75mm flowers and two very large overlapping bracts which hide the smaller five sepals. Flowers from June to September.

Found in bushy, waste places and small hedgerows climbing through the underlying vegetation.

Photograph from No1 Bed 01-07-2018

085 Common Cleavers

- Galium aparine

086 Common Comfrey

- Symphytum officinate

087 Field For-Get-Me-Not

- Myosotis arvensis

088 Viper's Burgloss

- Echium vulgare

No photo available

089 Skullcap

- Scutellaria galericulata

090 Self-heal

- Prunella vulgaris

091 Ground Ivy

- Glechoma hederacea


John Blundell

092 White Dead-nettle

- Lamium album

A short hairy creeping perennial with vertical unbranched flower stalks with heart shaped stalked leaves toothed at the margin soft to touch with no sting as the similar looking Nettle. Flowers are white, 2-lipped and open mouthed, 20-25mm with small greenish streaks on the lower lip if looked at closely. In whorls around the stem at the base of the paired opposite leaves. Usually early flowering from March but can be much later in the year.

Located in pockets around the Reserve on all four beds.

Photograph from south bank of No2 Bed 16 April 2018

093 Red Dead-nettle

- Lamium purpureum

094 Hedge Woundwort

- Stachys sylvatica

095 Marsh Woundwort

- Stachys palustris

096 Gipsywort

Lycopus europaeus

Found in wet ditches, waterside vegetation and marshy places.

Short to medium tall slightly hairy to hairy unbranched perennial with creeping rhizomes. Leaves alternate, broadly lanceolate to elliptical, pinnately lobed in base leaves and coarsely toothed progressing up the stem. Flowers small white bell shaped, spotted purple in dense whorls in the base of the upper leaves, July to September.

No Woolston image available


John Blundell

097 Bittersweet

Solanum dulcamara

Is not common on the Reserve but frequently located amongst bramble stands, hedges and open scrubby damper areas.

Weak clambering perennial up to 2 metres. Five petalled deep purple flowers with yellow anthers held in a central column in loose stalked clusters, May-September. The purple petals turn back further exposing the yellow anther columns. Leaves are pointed-oval with or without 2 lobes at the base on the lower leaves. The slightly ovoid fruiting berry is at first green then yellow and finally red when ripe and is poisonous.

Photograph is a stitched image from No1 Bed 18/06/2018 showing typical flower heads and early berry colour

097 Great Mullein

Verbascum Thapsus

Found in dry grassy and waste places, open scrub.

Tall, to 2 metres, round, winged stem, generally unbranched, plant covered in white woolly down. Leaves broad lanceolate, bluntly toothed held close to the stem. Flowers pale yellow 15-25mm across, 5 petals with upper two noticeably smaller than lower in the axils of each bract on a long dense terminal spike. July to September.

No Woolston image available

098 Common Figwort

- Scrophularia nodosa

099 Common Toadflax

- Linaria vulgaris

100 Monkey Flower

- Mimulus guttatus


John Blundell

101 Foxglove

- Digitalis purpurea

A tall perennial up to 1.5m with downy broadly lanceolate wrinkled leaves decreasing in size up the flower stem. Unbranched long tapering flower spike of generally pinky-purple two lipped tubular flowers, occasionally white. Widespread across the Reserve on all four beds June-September.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 18/06/2018

102 Thyme-leaved Speedwell

- Veronica serpylllifolia

103 Brooklime

- Veronica beccabunga

104 Greater Plantain

- Plantago major


Andy Weir

105 Ribwort Plantain

- Plantago lanceolata

Photograph from No3 Bed 26/05/2013

106 Honeysuckle

- Lonicera periclymenum


Dave Hackett

107 Teasel

- Dipsacus fullonum

Photograph from No4 Bed 07/08/2013


David Waterhouse

108 Harebell

- Campanula rotundifolia

Photograph from No3 Bed 31/08/2014

109 Hemp Agrimony

- Eupatorium cannabinum

110 Daisy

- Bellis perennis


John Blundell

111 Butterbur

- Petasites hybridus

Photograph from No3 Bed 2014

112 Yarrow

- Achillea millefolium

113 Sneezewort

- Achillea ptarmica

114 Mugwort

- Artemisia vulgaris

115 Trifd Bur Marigold

- Bidens tripartita

116 Nodding Bur Marigold

- Bidens cernua

117 Ox-Eye Daisy

- Leucanthemum vulgare

118 Tansy

- Tanacetum vulgare

119 Coltsfoot

- tussilago farfara

120 Ragwort

- Senecio jacobaea

121 Oxford Ragwort

- Senecio squalidus

122 Groundsel

- Senecio vulgaris

123 Sticky Groundsel

- Senecio viscosus

124 Greater Burdock

- Arctium lappa

125 Creeping Thistle

- Cirsium arvense


John Blundell

126 Spear Thistle

- Cirsium vulgare

A robust medium to tall plant 40-100cm with spiny winged stems and pinnately lobed leaves with stiff, straw coloured spines. The flower heads are large , 20-40mm across, red-purple with spreading spiny bracts. Flowers June to September.

Found across the Reserve alongside access tracks and bare, waste/grassy places.

Photograph from No1 Bed 01-07-2018

127 Marsh Thistle

- Cirsium palustre

128 Welted Thistle

- Carduus acanthoides


Dave Bowman

129 Black Knapweed

- Centaurea nigra

Photograph from No3 Bed 06/07/2013

130 Goatsbeard

- Tragopogen pratensis

131 Smooth Sow-Thistle

- Sonchus oleraceus

132 Prickly Sow-Thistle

- Sonchus asper

133 Prennial Sow-Thistle

- Sonchus arvensis

134 Danelion

- Taraxacum Sect. Vulgaria

135 Common Catsear

- Hypochaeris radicata

136 Leafy Hawkweed

- Hieracium umbellatum

137 Common Water-Plantain

- Alisma plantago-aquatica


Andy Weir

138 Bluebell

- Endymion non-scriptus

Photograph from No3 Bed 27/04/2014

139 Spanish Bluebell

- Endymion hispanicus


David Spencer

140 Common Star of Bethlehem

- Ornithogalum umbellatum

Was first recorded on 16th May 2014 on the South Meadow area of No3 Bed and not recorded anywhere else.

It is a perennial with grass like leaves which are grooved with a central white strip emanating from the roots and is hairless. The flowers are white, six petals with a green stripe on the back, in a loose umbel-like cluster on a leafless stem. Flowers May-June in grassy and cultivated places.

Photograph from No.3 Bed South Meadow area 16/05/2014


Dave Bowman

140 Lords and Ladies

- Arum maculatum

Photograph from No3 Bed of the fruiting berries 21/09/2014

141 Yellow Flag

- Iris pseudacorus

142 Blue-eyed Grass

- Sisyrinchium bermudiana


Dave Bowman

143 Bee Orchid

- Ophrys apifera

Photograph from No4 Bed 28/06/2014

144 Southern Marsh Orchid

- Dactylorhiza praetermissa

145 Common Spotted Orchid

- Dactylorhiza fuchsii

146 Common Water Starwort

- Callitriche stagnalis

147 Bulrush

- Typha latifolia


David Waterhouse

89 Borage

- Borago officinalis

Has been reported in the meadow areas of No.3 Bed in recent years.

A roughly hairy medium tall annual with pointed oval shaped leaves, the lower stalked, with wavy edges. The flowers are bright blue, circa 20mm across, held in loose drooping clusters, with narrow green, turning purple, sepal lobes and have a central prominent dark purple stamen column emanating from the white flower centre. Flowers may-September on rough ground, waysides and waste places.

Photograph from No.3 Bed 08/07/2013

A0

Systematic list of the Shrubs and Trees of Woolton Eyes

It is perhaps relevant here to define ‘what is a Shrub’ and ‘what is a tree’? - Only plants with woody parts are trees and shrubs.

So once you know that it has woody growth, how do you determine whether it is a tree or a shrub? - The generally acknowledged definition of a tree is a “woody plant having one erect perennial stem (trunk) at least three inches in diameter at a point 4-1/2 feet above the ground, a definitely formed crown of foliage, and a mature height of at least 13 feet.”

Shrubs, therefore, are the opposite of a tree : a “woody plant with several perennial stems that may be erect or may lay close to the ground. It will usually have a height less than 13 feet and stems no more than about three inches in diameter.”

As with everything in life however, there are exceptions. Some trees may have multiple trunks. Some shrubs can be shaped into a small tree by training one trunk. However, as long as the ‘general definitions’ are followed, you should be able to decide whether the plant is a tree, a shrub or neither.

A01 Crack Willow

Family: Salicaceae - Species: Salix fragilis

A frequently encountered tree on the Reserve, tall, up to 25 metres.

The bark develops deep fissures with age. Leaves are slender and lanceolate, dark green above and lighter green beneath on flexible yellow brown twigs. Male and female flowers are found on separate trees, usually in May. The male catkins are yellowish and the female catkins green which once pollinated transform into woolly white seeds dispersed by the wind.

Can easily be confused with the White Willow which has slightly longer lanceolate leaves with a covering of silky white hairs on the underside.

Photograph no Woolston image available

A02 Grey Willow

Family: Salicaceae - Species: Salix cinerea agg.

There are several willow species in the UK and many hybridise with one another making them hard to identify. Grey Willow is fairly common on the Reserve but easily confused with the similar Goat Willow, which it often hybridises with. Both varieties often being called ‘Pussy Willow’ after the silky grey male flowers which are said to resemble cats paws. Mature trees can reach 10 metres with grey-brown bark that develops diamond shaped fissures with age. The leaves are oval in shape generally twice as long as they are wide with a fine silver felt underneath when young and if looked at closely, rusty hairs beneath the veins. The new growth twigs are hairy at first but become smooth and appear reddish-yellow. Male and female flowers are found on separate trees in early spring, before the leaves appear, with the male catkins being greyish, stout and generally oval, becoming yellow with pollen. Female catkins are longer and greener.

Photograph no Woolston image available

A03 Goat Willow

Family: Salicaceae - Species: Salix caprea agg

Goat Willow is common on the Reserve but easily confused with the similar Grey Willow, which it often hybridises with. Both varieties often being called ‘Pussy Willow’ after the silky grey male flowers which are said to resemble cats paws. Mature trees can reach 10 metres with grey-brown bark that develops diamond shaped fissures with age. The leaves are not as long as Grey Willow being more oval, elliptical, oblong or almost round with tips often bent to one side and pointed with a fine silver felt underneath. The new growth twigs are hairy at first but become smooth and appear reddish-yellow. Male and female flowers are found on separate trees in early spring with the male catkins being greyish, stout and generally oval, becoming yellow with pollen. Female catkins are longer and greener.

Photograph no Woolston image available

A04 Osier

- Salix viminalis

A05 White Poplar

- Populus alba

A06 Common Alder

- Alnus glutinosa


Andy Weir

A07 Birch sp

- Betula sp

Photograph from No3 Bed 01/12/2013

A08 Hazel

- Corylus avellana

A09 Oak sp.

- Quercus sp.

A10 Elm sp.

- Ulmus sp.

A11 Dog Rose - Rosa canina


Andy Weir

A12 Hawthorn

- Crataegus monogyna

Photograph from No3 Bed 08/06/2013

A13 Rowan - Sorbus aucuparia

A14 Whitebeam - Sorbus aria


Brian Gort

A15 Blackthorn

- Prunus spinosa

Photograph from No3 Bed 26/06/2014


John Blundell

A16 Gorse

- Ulex europaeus

Photograph from No1 Bed 2014

A17 Broom - Cytisus scoparius

A18 Flowering Current - Ribes sanguineum

A19 Sycamore

- Acer pseudoplatanus

A20 Field Maple

- Acer campestre

A21 Large-leaved Lime

- Tiilia platyphyllos

A22 Rhododendron

- Rhododendron ponticum

A23 Common Ash

- Fraxinus excelsior

A24 Buddleia

Family: Buddlejaceae - Species: Buddleia davidii

A non-native species first introduced from China to cultivation in 1896 and found in the wild in 1922 is now established throughout the UK but sparse in the northern England uplands and central and northern Scotland. A shrub to 5 metres found across the Reserve especially on poor compacted soils, disturbed and waste ground.

Young shrubs start with multiple long arching shoots from the root ball which can then develop into a short trunked tree with straight or slightly arching branches. The leaves are opposite, oval to lanceolate, sharply toothed and long, 100-200mm, deep green above and whitish densely hairy beneath. Flowers June - September, generally in dense violet-lilac conical spikes at the tips of the twigs. Individual flowers are four petalled at the end of a 10mm long tube, corolla, with an orange ring around the mouth of the tube. The flower head retains its conical spike shape with the brown seed capsules replacing the flowers well into the winter.

Photograph no Woolston image available

A25 Elder

Family: Adoxaceae - Species: Sambucus nigra

A bushy shrub or tree up to 10 metres high with fragrant white large umbel like flower heads. Widespread and frequent on the Reserve in woody margins, hedges and in mixed shrub and waste or disturbed ground.

The main branches curve outward and vigorous straight shoots generally grow from the base of the short trunk. The bark is grey to light-brown and deeply furrowed, thick and corky but new stem and twig growth is green with warty bumps, a central white pith when broken and often reddish staining at the flower head, especially when fruit is ripe. The leaves are opposite and pinnate with 5 to 7 leaflets ovate, finely toothed, dull green above with sparse hairs beneath and an unpleasant musty or foetid smell. Flowers, June - July in large flat topped heads, 100-200mm diameter, of many small five petalled creamy-white fragrant flowers. The fruit is at first green which mature to purple-black berries circa 6mm in diameter causing the whole flower head to nod over.

Photograph no Woolston image available

A26 Guelder Rose

Family: Adoxaceae - Species: Viburnum opulus

A small spreading shrub up to circa 4 metres with hydrangea like, white, flower heads. Isolated specimens are found across the Reserve in moist margins of woodland, thickets and hedges.

The twigs are angled, greyish and hairy with opposite leaves, downy beneath with 3 or 5 spreading irregular shaped toothed lobes. Flowers in June - July, white, five petals in circular heads to circa 100mm diameter. The outer flowers on the head are sterile and circa 3 x larger than the inner fertile centre flowers. The fruits are globular berries to circa 8mm diameter, translucent red and persist for some time even after the leaves have dropped.

Photograph no Woolston image available

LM Mosses and Liverworts at Woolston Eyes

Mosses and Liverworts are the little green ‘jobbies’ we often notice but ignore. The most important feature of mosses and liverworts is that they have no vascular system. A plants vascular system is a series of tubes that can transport water and nutrients over a distance, technically the xylem and phloem.

Without a vascular system, mosses, and liverworts cannot grow very large. The ‘plants’ we see are actually carpets of many individuals and not a single plant. They require water to reproduce and have no root systems so need water droplets to survive which is why they are associated with moist and damp environments.They are known as the bryophytes.

Mosses are simple waxy little plants with no leaves and no stem that use each other to stay upright. Liverworts are even simpler than mosses. These are considered to be the simplest of all plants and often grow flat along the ground in large leaf-like structures.

Systematic list of the Mosses and Liverworts found on the Reserve follows with summary notes on abundance of the species in the UK and habitat. No attempt to describe the individual species recorded is attempted as the identification often requires expert knowledge and microscopic examination.

LM01 Rough-stalked Feather-Moss

Family: Brachytheciaceae - Species: Brachythecium rutabulu

This moss is very common and widespread in UK in a broad range of habitat, shady or open on logs, stumps, branches, rocks, walls, stones, gravel, soil and grassland. Only limited by altitude and high acidic soils.

LM02 Cypress-leaved Plait-Moss (Hypnum Moss)

Family: Hypnaceae - Species: Hypnum cupressiforme

This moss is very common and widespread in the UK, prefers slightly acidic conditions but occurs on slightly alkaline bark and silica rocks.

LM03 Common Smoothcap (Catherines Moss)

Family: Polytrichaceae - Species: Atrichum undulatum

A common and widespread moss in the UK, generally found in lowland woodland but also in shaded places in grassland, heaths, rocky areas etc which are moist but not water-logged.

LM04 Common Feather-moss

Family: Brachytheiaceae - Species: Kindbergia praelonga

One of the commonest mosses in the UK, found in sheltered places on trees, fallen logs, in woodland soils, banks, grassland and shaded walls.

LM05 Mamillate Plait-moss

Family: Hypnaceae - Species: Hypnum andoi

A common and widespread moss in the UK, generally associated with woodland found on tree trunks, branches, dead wood and rocks.

LM06 Forked Veilwort

Family: Metzgeriales - Species: Metzgeria furcate

A common Liverwort widespread in the UK growing on the bark of tree and scrub species and less often rocks. It is a translucent yellowish-green slime.

LM07 Bluish Veilwort

Family: Metzgeriaceae - Species: Metzgeria fruticulosa

This moss is common and widespread in the UK, found on twigs and branches of deciduous trees especially willow and less so elder and elm. Long dry specimens are unique in turning blue, hence the common name and former scientific name violacea.

LM08 Lateral Cryphaea

Family: Cryphaeaceae - Species: Cryphaea heteromalla

Widespread and fairly frequent moss in the UK but much less so in Scotland and northern England. Found on bark on trees and shrubs, prefers sheltered, moist places. Less common on stones, rocks and walls.

LM09 Bifid Crestwort

Family: Lophocoleaceae - Species: Lophocolea bidentate

One of the most common ‘leafy’ Liverwort’s come across in the UK. Found in varied habitats, on the ground, rocks and other plants in woodland, grassland and heaths.

LM10 Springy Turf-moss

Family: Hylocomiaceae - Species: Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus

Common and widespread moss over the whole of the UK. Found on the ground in unimproved grassland where the grass is shortish through management as mowing, in lawns, play areas, parks and paths, through grazing on farmland and heaths.

LM11 Pointed Spear-moss

Family: Hypnaceae - Species: Calliergonella cuspidate

Common and widespread moss in the UK in suitable habitat as marshes, mires, wet grassland and moist rocky places.

LM12 Wood Bristle-moss

Family: Orthotrichaceae - Species: Orthotrichum affine

This moss is common and widespread in the UK, found on trees and shrubs, especially Ash and prefers clean unpolluted air. Also found on rocks, stone and concrete in shadier places.

LM13 Thread-moss

Family: Bryaceae - Species: Bryum capillare

A common and widespread moss found in neutral to slightly acidic or alkaline soils in grassland, woodland and waste places and also on trees, timber, rocks and walls in similar environments.

LM14 Heath Star-moss

Family: Leucobryaceae - Species: Campylopus introflexus

A moss common and widespread in the UK despite it first appearing in the UK in 1941. This is a pioneer species of burning, forest clearing, ploughing, ditching and similar disturbed clearances but may also occur on rotting logs, posts, stumps, and thin soil along track edges.

LM15 Elegant Bristle-moss

Family: Orthotrichaceae - Species: Orthotrichum pulchellum

A moss most often associated with willow scrub above all other deciduous woodland trees, although it is not exclusive to this host. Found on twigs and branches, especially in sheltered places and less often on trunks, rocks or walls. Is common and widespread in the UK and increasing the colonisation of hitherto places where it was considered infrequent.

LM16 Velvet Feather-moss

Family: Brachytheciaceae - Species: Brachythecium velutinum

A common moss and widespread in most of the UK but less frequent in Scotland and north-west England. Occurs on wood on the branches, base and roots of trees, on dead wood and stones, walls and compacted soil.

LM17 Supine Plait-moss

Family: Hypnaceae - Species: Hypnum resupinatum

A moss common and widespread in the UK, found on tree bark, trunks, branches and dead wood of a large variety of broad-leaved hosts, rocks, walls, thin soils in slightly acidic, neutral to alkaline conditions, on siliceous rock and limestone in areas of high rainfall.

LM18 Grey-cushioned Grimmia

-

Family: Grimmiaceaea - Species: Grimmia pulvinate

This is a very common and widespread moss in the UK. Found almost exclusively on walls, brick, mortar, roofs, concrete and rocky places. It forms round, almost furry, greyish cushions around 10 to 20mm high when dry which appear dark green when wet as the long silvery-grey hair points on the leaves untwine exposing more of the green leaf structures.

LM19 Cape Thread-moss

-

Family: Orthodontiaceae - Species: Orthodontium lineare

A common and widespread moss in the UK. Found in woodland habitats on decaying timber, fallen branches, trunks, stumps etc. of mainly broad-leaved species but also on pines and rocky ground and walls in similar environments.

LM20 Common Pincushion

Family: Rhabdoweisiaceae - Species: Dicranoweisia cirrata

This moss is common and widespread in the UK except in the far north of Scotland. Found on timber and trees, rocky-stony places and old walls.

LM21 Creeping Feather-moss

Family: Amblystegiaceae - Species: Amblystegium serpens

Another common and widespread moss in the UK. Found on both living and dead wood in woods, hedges, especially old elders and open scrubby grassland, on stones and soil on banks, base of walls and beside streams and rivers.

LM22 Dilated Scalewort

Family: Jubulaceae - Species: Frullania dilatate

A very common and widespread liverwort in the UK. Found on a variety of trees and scrubs, ash, willow and poplar in particular but also on rocks, stones, walls and in grassland.

M Fungi

The dictionary definition of a ‘Fungi’ is typically; any of a diverse group of single or multi-celled organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the material in which they grow comprising the mushrooms, moulds, mildews, smuts, rusts and yeasts.

The fruitbodies we see only represent the reproductive organ of the greater fungi organism but as these are generally the only part externally visible, it is commonly erroneously considered to be the fungi itself.

We are indebted to the Rochdale Field Naturalists for their large contribution in initiating our fungi records with the survey work they undertook on two visits to the reserve in 2001, and a further visit in November 2002. The main areas covered were the lower footpath between No2 and No3 beds, the woodland adjacent to the footbridge /canal and on No3 bed itself.

The systematic list of the 52 species of Fungi recorded at Woolston Eyes follows in alphabetic order by the scientific name and is not in any taxonomy order. One, of some of the multiple, common names for each species is also listed along with a characteristic identification summary of the species with an image of any specimens found on the Reserve:

M01 Orange Peel Fungus

Family: Pyronemataceae - Species: Aleuria aurantia

A common ‘cup’ fungus in Britain, on clay soils and disturbed ground in late summer and autumn.

They usually grow in clusters and tend to develop irregular shapes, due in part to the crowding nature of growth, and can flatten and split. They are smooth, shiny and bright orange on the inside of the cup and downy white, when fresh, on the outside, becoming increasingly smooth and orange with maturity. The cup size is 20-100mm in diameter and around 20-40mm high without any visible stem or stipe. The flesh is orange when cut and the spore print is white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available


Les Jones

M02 Fly Agaric

Family: Amanitaceae - Species: Amanita Muscaria

The most iconic of British fungi and one of the least likely to be confused with any other fungus. It is toxic and has the distinctive bright red cap with white scales found in a variety of woodland habitats.

When first erupting from the ground litter they are completely white and covered in spikey warts. As the cap grows and expand the bright red cap skin (pellicle) shows through until the cap consists of mainly red skin with the white wart scales more or less even distributed over the whole surface. The cap starts off convex but flattens with maturity and grows to 100-200mm and stands around 100-200mm high with a grooved white stem ring. The white wart scales can weather to leave just a red cap. The gills are white but gradually turn yellowish with maturity and the spore print is white.

Photograph from No1 Bed September 2012

M03 Grisette

Family: Amanitaceae - Species: Amanita vaginata

This is an infrequent and local mushroom in Britain found in July through to October

Initially egg shaped the caps expands to become flat, 50-100mm diameter, but always with a small raised central area (an umbo)and is grey coloured. The edge of the cap is striated (with comb-like radial ridges). Below the skin the flesh is white and firm and the gills are white. The stem height is 120-200mm and 10 to 15mm in diameter, tapering only slightly at the cap and is white or tinged with the grey cap colour. The stem usually becomes hollow as the fruiting body matures. There is no stem ring on this Amanita species however, at the base there is a large white sack-like volva. The spore print is white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M04 Honey Fungus

Family: Physalacriaceae - Species: Armilliaria mellea

Widespread and common throughout Britain, most noticeable in autumn.

The cap is between 50-150mm diameter and ranges from honey-yellow to red-brown but always with a darker area towards the centre. Initially convex the caps flatten and often develop wavy edges with maturity and when young fine scales cover the cap but do not always remain evident. The cap flesh is white and firm. The gills are flesh coloured turning yellowish and finally developing rusty spots with maturity. The stems are also white when young but fade yellowish to yellow-brown have a pale yellowish stem ring and are around 5-15mm in diameter and 50-150mm tall with a fine woolly surface. The spore print is very pale creamy white.

The name Honey Fungus has nothing to do with the taste, some records make reference to the colour of the fungus itself but collecting a few and tying them in a polythene bag and left in a dry warm place will reportedly replicate the smell of honey. They are also bioluminescent but very weakly so.

Photograph - no Woolston image available


Brian Gort

M05 Jelly Ear Fungus

Family: Auriculariaceae - Species: Auricularia auricula-judae

Fairly widespread and frequent in Britain, the Jelly Ear fungus is seen mainly, but not exclusively, on dead Elder wood in damp, shady locations. It is best looked for in late summer through autumn although they can be found all year round.

The outer surface of the lobed fruiting body is tan-brown with a purple tinge and covered in a fine greyish velvety down but the inner surface is smooth. Individual lobes grow between 30-100mm across. The spore print is white.

Photograph from No.3 Bed 01/04/2014

M06 Yellow Cow-pat Toadstool (Yellow Fieldcap)

Family: Bolbitiaceae - Species: Bolbitius vitellinus

This is one of the shortest lived fungus encountered and is common and widespread in Britain. It grows from a bright yellow egg shape emergence to a brown to pale-brown toadstool in less than a day and occurs on rotting hay, grasses and cow-pats and wood mulch in full sun or shade through most of the year

It has a yellow-dull brown cap, 10-40mm diameter, which is grooved/striated at the edges and has a clear sticky coating when young which quickly dries in the sun to a silky finish and turns grey with maturity before rotting away by the following day. The, gills yellow changing to cinnamon and a white/yellow stem which is between 2-4mm in diameter, hollow and very easily damaged with no ring. The spore print is cinnamon to rust-brown

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

M07 Bowl Hoodie

Family: Marasmiaceae - Species: Calyptella capula

Widely distributed but localised in England, tending to coastal regions in Wales and scarce in Scotland.

Found on wood and thick plant stems and on first sighting resemble small flowers more than a fungus as the fruiting bodies form clusters of pure white to yellowish cups and tapered funnels. They have a smooth outer surface and are around 1-3mm long and up to 4mm in diameter hanging on the underside of branches, twigs and stout stems or drooping from the shrub or plant stem itself.

Photograph – no Woolston image available

M08 Silver Leaf Fungus

Family: Meruliaceae - Species: Chondrostereum purpureum

The fungus, infrequent but widespread in Britain, attacks wood and is evident on the leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs, especially fruit trees, roses, Hawthorn, Poplar, Maple and Oak, which develop a silvery sheen in summer. Following the appearance of the silvery sheen, affected branches die. Can be detected by cutting across a branch showing the silvery leaf sheen, an irregular dark stain may be seen in the centre, not necessarily corresponding to the heartwood. The leathery fruiting bodies appear from late summer through autumn. These start as just a crust on the wood but develop into intergrowing brackets around 30mm broad being lilac to deep purple patches with white edges and fine pores on the under-surface.

Similar silvering symptoms may sometimes develop as a result of non-disease forms of stress. This is known as false silver leaf and can be told apart from true silver leaf by the absence of stain in the wood when cut.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M09 White Spindles

Family: Clavariaceae - Species: Clavaria fragilis

Widespread and fairly common in Britain on unimproved grassland type habitats, from June to November.

Simple white worm like protuberances around 20-100mm tall and 4-5mm across. These fingers are more often straight with rounded tips but can be slightly flattened, wavy and/or forked near the tip. Close examination will often reveal longitudinal grooves in the surface. The tips yellow with maturity and finally turn brown with age.The spore print is white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M10 Pipe Club

Family: Typhulaceae - Species: Clavariadelphus fistulosus var. contorta

Localised and rather rare in Britain. occurs on dead branches of living deciduous trees, especially Hazel and Birch over the winter period.

Is basically a simple club shaped fungus, occurring singularly or in tight clusters, which become twisted and irregular protuberances of pinkish-brown, pale-brown colour and around 40mm in height. Flesh is yellowish and firm.

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

M11 Tawny Funnel Cap

Family: Tricholomataceae - Species: Clitocybe flaccida

Very widely distributed and common in Britain. Generally occurring in woodland habitats but can be found in rich humus soil conditions away from woodland. Typically an autumn fungus can be very late with fruiting bodies, sometimes in January. Is gregarious and forms large ‘fairy rings’.

The cap is convex, around 40 to 90mm diameter and later usually funnel shaped with a wavy in-rolled margin; smooth and matt; tawny or orange-brown. The caps turn paler as they gradually dry out, eventually becoming buff. Tawny Funnels that appear very late in the season sometimes have convex caps that do not develop central depressions - a cause of confusion. The gills start white but become tawny with age. The stem is 30-50mm high and around 5-10mm thick, downy at the base, no stem ring and slightly paler than the cap. Spore print is creamy-white.

Photograph - no Woolston image available.

M12 Butter Cap

Family: Marasmiacea - Species: Collybia butyracea

This is a widespread and common mushroom in Britain from autumn to early winter.

It gets its vernacular name, not from a visual aspect, but from the greasy, buttery, feel of the cap which is 30-70mm diameter and with a distinct centre bump, ‘umbo’. It is very variable in colour but is generally a ochre-brown, which pales with age and with a cream edge around the cap. The stems are tough and flexible around 15mm diameter and the same colour as the cap and has no ‘volva’ at the base or stem ring.

Photograph – no Woolston image available.

M13 Common Ink Cap

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus atramentarius

The ‘ink caps’ are named from the crude writing inks that were obtained from the decaying caps. Common Ink Caps are widely distributed and frequent in Britain from late summer through to early winter. They are found on a variety of decaying deciduous trees and buried wood.

They are usually found in clusters but can be solitary. The caps are grey to pale-brown, browner at the cap centre, around 30-70mm diameter, and are conical when young but flatten and disintegrate to a black inky fluid. The stem is white-grey, 15mm diameter and around 70-170mm tall and the gills are white-grey but rapidly turn black. The spore print is dark brown.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M14 Shaggy Ink Cap

Family: Agaricaceae - Species: Coprinus comatus

This is a distinctive fungus which is unlikely to be confused with other fungus families. It is widespread and common in Britain from April to November.

The shaggy cap is a long, white cylinder with shaggy, upturned, brownish scales. The gills are whitish, turning pink then black before liquefying from the rim inwards. The entire mushroom is very fragile and crumbles easily. The older it gets, the shaggy part start to gradually dissolve into a black, inky fluid, leaving only the standing stalk. Grows to 100-150mm tall. The stem is 10-15mm thick, white, hollow and brittle with a white stem ring which often detaches and slips down the stem. The spore print is black.

Photograph - no woolston image available

M15 Trooping Crumble Cap

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus disseminates

Very common and widespread in Britain, found from August to November and found in clusters, often very dense, massed around old stumps or buried wood of deciduous trees.

The cap starts as a conical bell with pleats, 5-15mm in diameter and stand 10-20mm high but flattens with maturity. They vary in colour only slightly from a pale buff-brown to clay grey and are very fragile and suit their synonym ‘Fairies Bonnets’. The gills start white, turn grey-brown and eventually black, but they do not dissolve into black ink as other Coprinoid mushrooms. The stem is white, bare, thin, hollow and easily damaged. The spore print is black.

Photograph - no Woolston image available.


Andy Weir

M16 Glistening Ink Cap

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus micaceous

Widespread and common in Britain, found from April to October associated with dead and buried wood.

This is a bell-shaped fungus which usually occurs in small groups with a cap reaching 20-40mm diameter, creamy-ochre coloured which darkens towards the centre and often has radial grooves. The cap is covered with a glistening powder. The gills are white when fresh becoming purple-brown and then black before liquefying. The stem is brittle and hollow, brownish at the base, around 5mm diameter and 40-100mm tall. The spore print is very dark-brown or black.

Photograph from No.3 Bed 05/10/2013

M17 Japanese Parasol Toadstool

Family: Psathyrellaceae - Species: Coprinus plicatilis

Fairly common in UK and widespread, found singly or in small groups, often after rain in soil amongst grass and woodland edges from late spring to autumn. This species is small, dirty white to pale grey-brown with a cap 10 - 20mm diameter, domed when fresh but becoming flat on maturity. The upper surface pleated and a centre smooth spot generally brownish. The stem is thin, 1-3mm, fragile, up to 70mm tall, hollow with no stem ring. The spore print is black. Fuitbody generally only lasts for a day.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M18 Variable Oysterling

Family: Inocybaceae - Species: Crepidotus variabilis

Common UK woodland species.

A tiny species, generally kidney shaped, virtually stemless, that appears on dead twigs of deciduous broad-leaved trees in the autumn and winter. The cap is initially white, turning creamy-ochre with age around 5-20mm in diameter. The gills, which radiate from the point of attachment, are white at first turning yellow-brown or buff with age. Spore print is a pinkish-buff.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M19 Common Jellyspot

Family: Dacrymycetaceae - Species: Dacrymyces stillatus

Common and widespread in the UK.

Can occur any time of the year during periods of wet weather. Orange-yellow when moist and young turning brown and translucent with age. Tiny ‘blobs’ slightly flattened 1-8mm across and 4mm tall in large groups on dead broadleaved or conifer wood, including posts and fabricated structures usually already well rotted.

Photograph no Woolston image available


Douglas Buchanan

M20 Blushing Bracket

Family: Fomitopsidaceae - Species: Daedaleopsis confragosa

Found on trees and decaying branches. Often in groups or tiers up the trunk or bough. Willow at Woolston is a common host.

Very common in the UK, especially along streams, rivers and any damp woodland places. Usually kidney shaped, slow growing up to 200mm across and 40mm deep. The crown is coloured brown to reddish-brown from warty growths except the outer edge which gives rise to a concentric ringed outer surface free of warts. The underside pores are white at first but with age mature to browns and finally grey colours and bruise a light pinkish-brown colour. The spore print is white.

Photograph from No3 bed 15th November 2014

M21 Moss Bell

Family: Strophariaceae - Species: Galerina hypnorum

Found in damp mossy conditions

A tiny fungus, pale brown, ochre-brown with a cap opening to an acute cone shape with fluted/striped appearance and deep gills underneath. Total height 30-60mm and cap diameter circa 5-15mm. The stem tapers slightly from a small swollen base to the cap.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M22 Amethyst Deceiver

Family: Hydnangiaceae- Species: Laccaria amethystea

Widespread and common in the UK on dark damp leaf litter and mosses in woodland, especially beech, usually in small groups.

This is a coloured fungus, violet-purple when wet and pale grey, with a hint of violet tones, when dry. The caps, 20-70mm diameter, are initially convex but become almost flat topped with age. Old caps become almost white in dry weather, paling from the centre out but eventually the whole fungus ages to a buffy colour. The gills are broad and deep and are the first to fade in colour as the spores and spore print are white. The stems are 5-10mm in diameter and 50-100mm high, often bent and twisted and are deep purple when young and increasingly hairy towards the base.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M23 Deceiver

Family: Hydnangiaceae - Dpecies: Laccaria laccata

Widespread and common throughout the UK in all species of woodland in June through to November.

This common fungus is very variable and not easy to specifically identify with certainty as the caps are found in so many shades often together in the same grouping. Cap 20-70mm diameter, initially convex but become flat when aged. During wet weather young caps turn deep tan or reddish-brown but often orangey. In dry spells caps turn paler buff and eventually almost white. The gills are broad, widely spaced and deep and are the first part of the fruitbody to pale as the white spores coat them. Spore print is hence white also. Stem is 5-10mm diameter and 50-100mm long and increasingly hairy towards the base, fibrous and hollowing.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M24 Oak Milkcap

Family: Russulaceae - Species: Lactarius quietus

Common and widespread in UK, mycorrhizal with oak trees only and found from August to October.

A nondescript fungus. Caps 40-90mm diameter starting convex but flattening and slightly depressed with aging. Yellow-brown to reddish-brown, shiny when wet and mat when dry. The gills are crowded, creamy-brown to a pinkish-yellow, turning browner with age and exude a creamy-white milk when damaged. Stem 5-10mm in diameter and 50-70mm in height is the same colour as the cap but darker towards the base and no stem ring. Spore print is creamy white with a salmon tinge.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M25 Ugly Milkcap

Family: Russulaceae - Species: Lactarius turpis

Fairly common and widespread in UK, found under birch in acid soils, especially in wet woodland edges.

A dull olive-brown fungus, slimy and shiny when wet but dull and matt when dry. Cap from 70-180mm diameter, olive-brown with paler margin, initially convex but flattens with age usually with a slight depression in the centre. Gills cream to pale buff crowded which tinge sepia when bruised and exude a creamy-white milk when damaged which dries to olive-brown. Stem coloured as cap, 10-25mm diameter tapering to base, no stem ring, 40-70mm long. Spore print creamy-white. When exposed to drops of potassium hydroxide the cap immediately turns purple.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M26 Parasol Mushroom

Family: Agaricaceae - Species: Lepiota procera

Found in various wooland, Willow is a preferred host and less often Birch.

Common in southern UK, less frequent in northern areas. Cap initially globular and pale brown with a dark brown crown which breaks upon growing to create the scales. This species expand the cap until it is flat up to 250mm diameter for a large specimen with a small raised bump in the centre called an ‘umbo’. The flesh is white and does not change significantly when cut. gills are white to cream and only spread inwards some distance from the stem.

A stem skirt persists but can fall to the base in maturity. The stem is smooth and white or cream but decorated with dark brown scales which persist. The stem flesh is white and sometimes hollow. The stem is circa 10-15mm diameter in the parallel portion, swollen at the base and tends to taper at the apex. Height can reach 300mm.

Spore print is white or cream.

Photograph no Woolston image available


Andy Weir

M27 Shaggy Parasol

Family: Agaricaceae - Species: Lepiota rhacodes

Associated with a variety of woodland

Cap is initially dome shaped when young then expands to circa 150mm diameter but rarely to completely flat. The cap layers separate as the specimen grows creating the ‘shaggy’ appearance of the cap surface. The gills are white and soft. The stem skirt, shown in the photograph can fall to the stem base on maturing fruitbodies. Fruiting body June to October Spore print white or pale-cream. When cut or bruised the cap, gills and stem flesh turns reddish.

Photograph from No3 bed 5th October 2013

M28 Wood Blewit

Family: Tricholomataceae - Species: Lepista nuda

Common and widespread in UK, found in leaf litter in mixed deciduous woodland and sometimes hedgerows. Most common from August to December but can be seen at any time of the year.

Often forming ‘fairy rings’ the cap is large at 60-150mm diameter, grey-brown in colour with a distinct violet tinge and a slight inrolled margin until the violet tinge fades and the surface turns buff with a mid-brown centre. The gills are crowded and have a lilac tinge which turns buff then brown through aging. Stem is thick, 15-25mm diameter tapering out slightly at the base.. The whole fungus is stout and solid looking which together with the violet tinge separates it from all the other purple-blue-lilac species. The spore print is pale pinkish-buff.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M29 Slime mould (Wolf's Milk)

Family: Tubiferaceae - Species: Lycogala epidendrum

Common and widespread in UK, found on damp rotting timber, especially large logs June to November.

The fruit bodies appear either scattered or grouped as small cushion like blobs around 3-15mm in rough diameter. The colour is quite variable from pinkish, grey, yellowish brown and greenish-black with the mature individuals tending to the darker colours. They maybe round, or somewhat compressed with a warty or rough texture. When immature they are filled with a pink paste like fluid but on maturity are filled with a mass of minute grey spores.

Slime moulds are a species of myoxgastrid amoeba, individual cells of a reddish amoeba like organism not a fungus. These amoeba, plasmodia, amalgamate to form the aethalium, the visible fruit bodies,

Photograph no Woolston image available

M30 Common Puffball

Family: Agaricaceae - Species: Lycoperdon perlatum

Widespread and common found in woodland of all kinds, also in scrub and grassland and is usually in groups or small lines or fruitbodies from July to November.

Typically this fungus is an inverted pear shape 30-60mm diameter and 40-90mm in height. Its surface is covered in pearl like stipules which distinguish it from its many similar relatives. In maturity these pearl stipules fall away to reveal an intricate ochre and white net pattern over the inner spore sac. There is a darker area at the apex which develops a pore hole through which a spores are released by pressure on the outer skin from rainfall or animal disturbance. The stem of the puffball is effectively an inverted cone and may contain an amount of spongey, infantile material. The spores are olive-brown becoming darker when fully mature.

Photograph no Woolston Eyes image available

M31 Stump Puffball

Family: Agaricaceae - Species: Lycoperdon pyriforme

Widespread and very common in the UK. Found growing on decaying tree stumps and well rotted fallen branches. The only puffball in the UK which grows on wood and not directly in soil.

A gregarious species often in very densely packed groups. The ball is 15-40mm in diameter and the fungi 30-40mm high and pestle to pear shaped fruitbody is initially white and covered in short warts. With maturity, the skin turns brown and the apex turns darker as the spore hole develops. The stem is short and spongy, parallel or tapering at the base and contains infertile material which stays white even when the fruitbody is fully matured. The spores are olive-brown turning darker on full maturity. Sometime the fungus looks like it is growing in soil but investigation will reveal a buried trunk or large bough as an aid to indentification.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M32 Clustered Domecap

Family: Lyophyllaceae - Species: Lyophyllum decastes

Common and widespread UK fungus of deciduous woodland margins, clearings ,commons, parks and especially any disturbed soils.

This species varies greatly in size and colour, from yellow-browns, browns through to bluish tinged greys, and is a clump forming fungi. The cap is between 40-100mm in diameter, convex but sometime only shallowly domed and usually irregular in shape, distorted and margins scalloped. The cap is shiny and peels easily. The gills are crowded, pale greyish which turn yellow-brown with age. The stem is roughly 10-20mm diameter and 40-80mm high and usually curved as multiple stems meet at the base, grey-white to grey-brown with no stem ring. The spore print is white.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M33 Orange Mosscap

Family: Mycenaceae - Species: Mycena fibula

Relatively common in the UK, found in damp leaf litter and especially mossy places.

A reddish-orange to pale yellow fungus which becomes paler with age, singular or spaced groups. Young specimens are semispherical with rolled in margins which open during maturity often splitting the caps and distorting them which are around 10-20mm in diameter. The gills are pale, widely spaced, deep and extend down the stem giving a vertical fluting appearance from below. The stem can be less than 1mm in diameter, parallel but tapering at base, circa 20-40mm high, yellowish at the cap but very pale at the base and the flesh white with a thread-like hollow. Spore print is white.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M34 Dark Milking Bonnet

Family: Mycenaceae - Species: Mycena Leucogala

Found on debris and decaying litter in deciduous, conifer woods, hedgerows and in moss July to November. Considered a variant of Mycena galopus or separate species by different bodies.

The caps are roughly 10-20mm diameter, conical, translucent with a stripy appearance from the gill shadow beneath and black-brown to bluish-black in colour and a distinct browning at the margin. The gills are widely spaced, deep whitish when young turning more greyish or brownish with a whitish edge on aging. The stem to 65mm and around 2mm in diameter, parallel, hollow and the same colours as the cap, dark brown towards the cap turning blacker towards the base and exuding a milky sap when broken. Spore print white.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M35 Coral Spot

Family: Nectariaceae - Species: Nectaria cinnabarina

Common and widespread in the UK, found on broadleaf trees, Beech in particular but also Sycamore, Horse Chestnut and Hornbeam but not conifers. Summer and autumn fruitbody but can be found at any time of the year.

Having a complex life cycle the first evidence on dying twigs and usually small branches are many pin-head sized pink fungal blobs break through the thin bark over a large area of the timber. These blobs harden and turn dark-reddish brown, 1-4mm across, by which time the timber is so decayed it falls from the tree in windy weather. Spore print is white.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M36 Beech Jellydisc

Family: Helotiaceae - Species: Neobulgaria pura

Uncommon in the UK but not a rare woodland species found on dying branches of living trees but generally on decaying fallen trunks and branches of broad-leaf trees, especially Beech during the summer and autumn.

A pinkish-brown gelatinous flat disc shaped fruitbody from 0.5-15mm diameter and up to 8mm high with no visible stem. Clump forming which results in distortion of the disc shape as bodies push and grow into each other. Spore print is white.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M37 Brown Mottlegill

Family: Bolbitiaceae - Species: Panaeolina foenisecii (there is no concensus on the taxonomic family for this species)

Common and widespread in the UK this fungus is the most common of the common ‘lawn mushrooms’ on any frequently mown area not regularly fertilised through April to December.

Caps are 10-20mm diameter are initially conical expanding to broadly convex and mid to dark brown when wet but dry from centre out to a creamy beige. The gills are quite open, initially pale brown becoming mottled dark brown on aging. Stem is 3-5mm diameter, no stem ring, and 40-70mm high, light brown and turning creamy toward the base. Spore print is dark brown.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M38 Brown Rollrim

Family: Paxillaceae - Species: Paxillus involutus

A common and widespread fungus in UK found in broad leaved woodland habitats and associated especially with Birch but with other trees on acid soils from July to October.

Caps are convex when young with in-rolled margins, an ochre brown, which flattens and soon becomes centrally depressed with a raised centre pip, umbo, and changes to a darker chestnut brown. The margins remain in-rolled throughout. 50-120mm diameter when mature the caps are sticky when wet but dry slightly downy and become smooth when old. The gills are crowded, a pale ochre when young aging to brown with rusty spots. If bruised they turn rusty brown very quickly. Stem is 8-15mm diameter and usually from 60-120mm long but usually curved and is parallel, light-brown at first but aging to a chestnut colour or if bruised. Spore print is yellow-brown.

Photograph no Woolston image available.

M39 Cinnamon Porecrust

Family: Hymenochaetaceae - Species: Phellinus ferreus

Fairly common and widespread brown crust fungus in the UK on a variety of dead broadleaf wood species but Hazel in particular.

This species does not have a ‘traditional’ mushroom or toadstool shaped fruitbody but initially forms numerous small yellow-brown cushions which grow and fuse to form a carpet of crust like fruitbody which is rusty brown. Without gills, the spores are released through small pores on the crust, tubes 2-5mm deep, which are brown and number 4-6 per mm. The spore print is white.

Photograph no Woolston image available


David Bowman

M40 Shaggy Scalycap

Family: Strophariaceae - Species: Pholiota squarrose

Locally common but infrequently come across in the UK. Found at the bases of old and felled stumps of broadleaved trees and conifers notably Beech and Spruce especially when growing in open grassland or clearings on alkaline soils in August to November.

The caps are 40-120mm in diameter, straw to yellow-ochre in colour and covered in upturned roughly triangular brown scales in apparent concentric rings. Convex when young they flatten with age but retain the in-rolled margin. The cut flesh is pale yellow and firm. Gills are crowded, joined to the stem, are greyish-yellow with a veil covering when young, turning to cinnamon on maturity. The stem is 7-15mm in diameter and 60-150mm in length and has a noticeable change point with scales, as the cap, below it and paler and smooth above it. Usually in small clusters where found. The spore print is a rusty brown.

Photograph from No3 bed 4th October 2017

M41 Oyster Mushroom

Family: Pleurotaceae - Species: Pleurotus ostreatus

Widespread throughout UK and fairly common. Almost exclusively found on deciduous trees dead or standing and fallen trunks and large branches, in particular Beech and Oak. Found high up a tree or on the ground.

A highly variable species in both colour and shape. In general they are whitish, cream or brown but blue-grey is also known and they are usually bracket like, kidney, shaped with a radial or eccentric stem fixing the specimen like an ear onto the timber. 50-180mm across in size they often grow in overlapping groups but with each stem separately attached. Gills are crowded, white turning ochre with maturity and the attachment stem if apparent is small 10-30mm long and 10-20mm in diameter tapering towards the base, white to cream, woolly at the base and no stem ring. The spore print is white to pale lilac-grey.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M42 Lumpy Bracket

Family: Polyporaceae - Species: Pseudotrametes gibbosa

Fairly common and widespread in UK, found on broadleaf trees, standing, stumps or fallen trunks and large branches, especially Beech and Sycamore in late summer and autumn.

A standard semi-circular bracket shape 50-200mm across and 10-60mm thick but can form rosettes on stump tops. White, often with pinkish rounded edge when clean, downy when young but with age the surface becomes leathery, covered in algae and dirt loses the down and the edge becomes more acute. The spore tubes terminate at the surface underneath in irregular elongated pores, cream at first but age to ochre. These slot like pores are diagnostic to this species, all other polypore have round or oval pores. The spore print is white.

Photograph no Woolston image available

M43 Tar Spot

Family: Rhytismataceae - Species: Rhytisma acerinum

A very widespread, common and conspicuous fungus on Sycamore and other Maple leaves which does very little damage to the living tree but can cause premature leaf drop.

It appears initially as yellow blotches on the leaves in spring. These develop into slightly raised , shiny, black spots dotted over the leaf surface. The outer edge is usually bordered brown and is around 10-15mm across.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M44 Purple Brittlegill

Family: Russulaceae - Species: Russula atropurpurea

Common fungus around woodlands throughout Britain especially under Oak and Pine trees.

A large mushroom with a cap around 40-100mm in diameter, convex at first then flattening and developing slightly depressed centes in maturity. They are reddish-purple around the cap rim (note: older specimens can be bleached of colour on the rim) deepening in colour to purple and very dark towards the center. The gills and thick even stem are white to creamy in colour. The spore print is ochre.

Photograph - no Woolston image available


David Hackett

M45 Scarlet Elfcup

Family: Sarcoscyphaceae - Species: Sarcoscypha austriaca

Fairly frequent and widespread throughout Britain, found on fallen branches and twigs especially partly buried in moss, most abundant in late autumn and winter.

It forms a generally round but irregular shaped cup from 20-70mm diameter and 10-20mm high with the edges often curling inwards. The inside of the cup is bright red and smooth, the outside is paler and covered in fine hairs. Observed under strong magnification these are in the form of tangled coils which is diagnostic for this species. The related Ruby Elfcup has tangled straight hairs.

Photograph from No.1 Bed 05/02/2015

M46 Common Earth Ball

Family: Sclerodermataceae - Species: Scleroderma citrinum

A common fungus of woody and short grassland areas around 40 to 100mm in diameter found from July to December.

The roundish ball of the body has no stem and is initially whitish, cream or yellow and may turn brown or greenish on aging. It is covered with coarse scales of irregular shape and size. The body skin ruptures on maturity leaving an irregular opening from which the spores emerge via wind and rain assistance. Empty earthball skins can persist for months in sheltered locations. The inside of the ball is white at first, turning brown with white marbling before turning purple-brown throughout.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M47 Eyelash Cup

Family: Pyronemataceae - Species: Scutellina scutellate

Found on rotting wood and other humus rich damp habitats and is widespread and common in Britain from late spring to late autumn.

The visible fruiting bodies form small red cups, 3-10mm diameter, which open and flatten in maturity. They have distinctive long dark hairs, ‘eyelashes’ on the outer edge which are visible but clearly so under a magnifying glass. The cup center is orange-red and browner on the outside which is covered in stiff dark hairs up to 10mm in length which resemble eyelashes on the cup rim. The flesh is red and thin.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M48 Verdigris Agaric

Family: Strophariaceae - Species: Stropharia ruginosa

This is one of only a few green-blue fungi and is very localised in Britain, mainly on alkaline humus.

The bell shaped caps are uniform coloured much nearer to green than blue and are very slimy when new and noticeably glossy, standing out amongst the general floor litter. With age they gradually flatten, size between 25-80mm diameter, and the colour pales to brownish-tan from the centre outwards. Small white veil fragments can be seen on the cap and its rim, more noticeable in younger specimens. The stem is pretty much uniform in diameter up to the cap and has a brownish ring below which the stem is covered in fine white flakes/scales. Spore print is purple-black.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M49 Earth Fan

Family: Thelephoraceae - Species: Telephora terrestris

Usually associated with pine woods it does however occur with deciduous trees as Oak, Birch and Willow. It is widespread and common in Britain.

It resembles a rosette-like fan with the upper face reddish-brown to dark-brown, often paler at the margins and with darker banding in the rosette. There is no stem to speak of, a rudimentary one at best, and grows to 60 -150mm diameter. The underside of the rosette is lighter brown to mid-brown. The spore print is purple-brown.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

M50 Yellow Brain

Family: Tremellaceae - Species: Tremella mesenterica

Principally found in the autumn-winter period on fallen deciduous trees and branches which has already been attacked from other wood rotting fungi and is widespread and common throughout Britain.

It is a bright yellow jelly fungus and mature specimens resemble the convoluted folds of a human brain sprouting from decaying wood. It is best looked for in wet weather as in dry spells it shrivels to a hard rubbery patch on the wood which is more difficult to pick out.

Photograph - no Woolston image is available

M51 Stubble Rosegill

Family: Pluteaceae - Species: Volvariella speciose

Fairly common throughout Britain. Occurs as single specimens or in groups associated with rich humus such as woody, grass and other organic mulch.

Has a white to greyish cap, paler at the cap edge graduating greyer and brownish to the centre. Initial bodies are ovoid, like an egg, but the cap becomes convex and even flattens around 5-10cm across. The cap is smooth but slimy when young, sticky when moist and silky when dry. The stem white, around 10-15mm diameter tapers towards the cap and is without a stem ring but retains a volva, baggy sac, at its base. Usually reaches around 50-90mm in height. When cut the flesh is white throughout. The spore print is pink.

Photograph - no Woolston image available


David Bowman

M52 Candle Snuff

Family: Xylariaceae - Species: Xylaria hypoxylon

This is an unmistakable fungus occurring in groups and is best looked for in the winter months. It is a fungus of dead and decaying wood, mainly deciduous but sometimes also pine.

A black fungus which throws up fingers up to 50mm through the substrata which develop white powdery tips from late autumn and over the winter period. These fruiting bodies branch to resemble ‘antlers’ or ‘candlestick’ forms as the fungus develops. On maturity, in early spring, the white coating disappears leaving the spikes/antlers all black.

This fungus is bioluminescent, although a very weak source and is also called, Candlestick Fungus and Antler Fungus, descriptions no doubt connected with their visual form.

Photograph - from No3 bed 6th February 2017.

Undetermined Amanita species

Family: Amanitaceae - Species: Amanita sp.

A species of Amanita, Agarics, was found which was not ‘muscaria’ (Fly Agaric) or ‘vaginata’ (Grisette). Amanita is a large genus and the order usually have white spores, a stem ring slightly below the cap, a veil which breaks up as the cap expands and a domed cap which flattens with age and contain some of the most toxic mushrooms.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Undetermined Cone-Head species

Family: Bolbitiaceae - Species: Conocybe sp.

Conocybe sp. are common and widespread in the UK usually on more fertile habitats as grassland, moss, dung and decaying wood.

Conocybe is a genus of mushrooms with most quite delicate with a long thin stem and a conical shaped cap and are collectively known as ‘cone-heads’ because of this. Separation of some of these species with similar ‘Galerina’ species is difficult in the field and hence this record just refers to a Conocybe sp.

Photograph - no Woolston image available

Undetermined Hebeloma species

Family: Hymenogastraceae - Species: Hebeloma sp.

Hebeloma is a large genus of typical mushroom form, cap, gills, and stem, but identification of species can be tedious and require microscopic examination. The specimen found was left as Hebeloma sp.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Undetermined Marasmius species

Family: Marasmiaceae - Species: Marasmius sp.

A large genus of typically small brown unimpressive mushrooms found in leaf litter that can require microscopic examination is necessary to identify and separate from some collybiod and mycenoid species.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Undetermined Melanoleuca species

Family: Tricholomataceae - Species: Melanoleuca sp.

Most of this genus are small to medium sized brownish to whitish mushrooms with few distinctive features and can require microscopic examination. The specimen found was not closely examined and left as Melanoleuca sp.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Undetermined Russula sp. (Red and Yellow Capped)

Family: Russulaceae - Species: Russula

This family is notorious for pin-pointing the precise species from the 20-30 often referenced in field guides. Suffice it to say Russula are reddish but sometimes orangish or yellowish and no attempt to separate will be made in this summary.

The general species description is they have a convex to flat cap, around 8-10cm diameter, with white or creamy gills underneath and a smooth white stem around 10cm high and fairly even thickness of 2cm. The cap colour will be left as stated above. It is widely distributed and grows on damp humus, common around pine trees.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Undetermined Stereum species – not Rugosum

Family: Stereaceae - Species: Stereum sp.

One of the fourteen Stereum species occurring in Britain which was not identified to a specific species.

They are simple small bracket shaped membranes appearing on dead wood. The underside contain spore but no gills as ‘cap and stem’ mushrooms. They can be split into two groups those which exude a reddish liquid (blood) at cut surfaces and those which do not.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Undetermined Tricoloma species

Family: Tricholomataceae - Species: Tricoloma sp.

One of the 50 known species of Tricoloma found in Britain which was not separated to a particular species.

The general characteristics of the family are; fleshy, white gilled mushrooms. The cap is often connected to the stem by means of a small notch. Colour varies from yellowish to greys and through to browns and though many of the genus species can be identified on physical characteristics these are often variable and hard to discern with exactitude and microscopic examination is an additional aid.

Photograph no Woolston image available

Woolston Eyes Flora and Fungi

FLORA

The following species list is certainly not exhaustive as indicated by recent small scale surveys in 1990 and 1995/6 when almost 50 additional species were recorded giving a total of 215. The list does not give any indication of the relative abundance of each species.

The fungi survey undertaken 2001/02

  1. The presence of a species is denotes by a “1” or a letter in the body of the table.
  2. The “80” list is taken from “AN ECOLOGICAL SURVEY”. The location of the plants was not given.
  3. The “MANAGEMENT PLAN” list was published in 1985 but compiled from data collected over an unkown period. The headings are as follows:
  • 1 to 4 - the number of the bed
  • B - flora on the area to the East of No.1 bed before it was lost to waste disposal.
  • W - flora present at Woolston but with the location not given
  1. The “83” list was abstracted from an article by D McNaughton published in the 1983 Annual Report.
  2. The “85” list was abstracted from three articles published in the 1985 Annual report:-
  • A from “Aquatic Flora and Fauna” by A Cook
  • B from “Butchersfield!” by D McNaughton
  • T from “Trees along the Mersey” by P J Nichols. It has been assumed that the trees were planted on the Eyes!
  1. The “90” list is from a survey carried out by the “CHESHIRE CONSERVATION TRUST Ltd”,(organised by Mrs E M Nall) on No.3 bed in the summer of 1990. The “N” indicates new species found on that bed and “1” confirmation of the species already mentioned in the “Management Plan” list.
  2. The “96” list shows the new/interesting species found in a survey carried out by Mrs R Martin in 1995-6.
  Management Plan  
Latin English 80 1 2 3 4 B W 83 85 90 96
Acer campestre Field Maple - - - - - - - - T - -
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore - - - - - - - - T N -
Achillea millefolium Yarrow 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Achillea ptarmica Sneezewort 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Aegopodium podagraria Ground Elder - - - - - - - - - N -
Agropyron repens Couch Grass 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Agrostis canina Brown Bent Grass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Agrostis stolonifera Creeping Bent 1 - - - - - - - - - -
Agrostis tenuis Common Bent 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Algae ## Algae - - - - - - - - A - -
Alisma plantago-aquatica Water Plantain 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Alliaria petiolata Garlic Mustard - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Alnus glutinosa Alder - - - - - 1 - - T - -
Alopecurus pratensis Meadow Foxtail 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Angelica achangelica Garden Angelica - - - - - - - - - N -
Angelica sylvestris Wild Angelica 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Arctium lappa Great Burdock 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Arenaria serpyllifolia Thyme-leaved Sandwort - - - - - - - - - - 1
Arrhenathrum elatius False Oat Grass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Artemesia vulgaris Mugwort 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Arum maculatum Lords and Ladies - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Asplenuim sp. Spleenwort - - - - - - - - - - 1
Bellis perennis Daisy - - - - - 1 - - - N -
Betula sp Birch - - - - - - - - T - -
Bidens cernua Nodding Bur Marigold - - - - - - - - - N -
Bidens tripartia Trifid Bur Marigold - - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Blackstonia perfoliata Yellow-wort - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Brassica napus Rape - - - - - - - - - N -
Brassica rapa Turnip 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Callitriche stagnalis ## Starwort - - - - - - - - A - -
Calystegia sepium Bellbine 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Campanula rotundirolia Harebell - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s Purse 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Cardamine flexuosa Wavy Bittercress - - - - - - - - - N -
Cardamine hirsuta Hairy Bittercress - - - - - - - - - - 1
Cardamine pratensis Lady’s Smock - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Carduus crispus Welted Thistle - - - - - - - - - N -
Carex acutiformis Lesser Pond Sedge - - - - - - - - - N -
Carex hirta Hairy Sedge 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Carex humilis Dwarf Sedge - - - - - - - - - - 1
Carex otrubae False Fox Sedge - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Carex pseudocyperus Cyperus sedge - - - - - - - - - N -
Centaurea nigra Hardheads (Knapweed) 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Centaurium erythraea Common Centuary - - - - - - 1 1 - - -
Cerastium fontanum Common Mouse-ear - - - - - - - - - - 1
Chamaenerion angustifolium Rosebay Willowherb 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Chenopodium album Fat Hen 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Ox-Eye Daisy 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Chrysanthemum vulgare Tansy 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Cirsium arvense Creeping Thistle 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Cirsium palustre Marsh Thistle 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Cirsium vulgare Spear Thistle 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Corylus avellana Hazel - - - - - - - - T - -
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - T 1 -
Creatophyllum ## Hornwort - - - - - - - - A - -
Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Dactylorhiza fuschii Common Spotted Orchid - - - - - 1 - - - - 1
Dactylorhiza Praetermissa Southern Marsh Orchid - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Dactylorhiza spp. Marsh Orchid - - - - - - - 1 - - 1
Daucus carota Wild Carrot - - - - - - - - - N -
Deschampsia caespitosa Tufted Hair Grass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Digitalis purpurea Foxglove - - - - - - 1 - - N -
Dipsacus fullonum Teasel - - - - - - - - - N -
Echium vulgare Viper’s Bugloss - - - - - - - - - - 1
Endymion non-scriptus Bluebell - - - - - - - 1 - N -
Epilobium adenocaulon American Willowherb 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Epilobium hirsutum Hairy Willowherb 1 - 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Epilobium palustre Marsh Willowherb 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Epilobium parviflorum Lesser Hairy Willowherb 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Equisetum arvense Common Horsetail 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp Agrimony - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Festuca rubra Red Fescue - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Fragaria vesca Wild Strawberry 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Fraxinus excelsior Ash - - - - - - - - T - -
Galium aparine Goosegrass 1 1 - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Geranium molle Dovesfoot Cranesbill - - - - - - - - - - 1
Glechoma hederacea Ground Ivy - - - - - - - - - N -
Glyceria maxima Reed Grass 1 - - - - - - - - N -
Glyceria rnaxima Reed Sweet Grass - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Gymnadensia conopsea Fragrant Orchid - - - - - - - - B - -
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Hieracium perpropinquum Leafy Hawkweeds - - - - - - - - - N -
Hieracium umbellatum Leafy Hawkweeds - - - - - - - - - N -
Holeus lanatus Yorkshire Fog 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Humulus lupulus Hop - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Hypericum perforatum Common St. John’s Wort 1 - 1 1 1 - - 1 - 1 -
Hypochaeris radicata Common Cat’s Ear - - - - - - - - - N -
Impatiens glandulifera Himalayan Balsam 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Iris pseudacorus Yellow Flag 1 1 1 1 - - - - - 1 -
Juncus articulatus Jointed Rush 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Juncus bufonius Toad Rush 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Juncus conslomeratus Compact Rush - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Juncus effusus Soft Rush 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Juncus inflexus Hard Rush 1 - - - 1 1 - - - - -
Lamium album White Dead-nettle - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Lamium purpureum Red Deadnettle - - - - - - - - - - 1
Lathyrus pratensis Meadow Vetchling - - - - - - 1 - - N -
Lemna ## Duckweed - - - - - - - - A - -
Linaria vulgaris Toadflax 1 1 1 - 1 - - - - - -
Lolium multiflorum ltalian Ryegrass 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Lolium perenne Perennial Ryegrass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Lonicera periclymenum Honeysuckle - - - - - - - - T - -
Lotus corniculatus Birds Foot Trefoil 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Lotus uliainosus Greater Birds Foot Trefoil 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Luzula campestris Field Woodrush - - - - - - - - - - 1
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged Robin - - - - - - - - - - 1
Lycopus europaeus Gypsywort 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Malva moschata Musk Mallow 1 1 - - 1 1 - 1 B - -
Malva sylvestris Common Mallow 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - -
Matricaria recutita Wild Clematis 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Medicago lupulina Black Medick - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Melilotus alba White Melilot 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Melilotus officinalis Ribbed Mellilot - - - - - - - - - - 1
Mimulus guttatus Monkey Musk - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Myosotis arvensis Field Forget-me-not - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Numex crispus Curled Dock - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Oenanthe crocata Hemlock Water Dropwort 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Oenothera erythrosepala Evening Primrose 1 - 1 - 1 - - - - - -
Ophrys apifera Bee Orchid - - - - - - - - - - 1
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip - - - - - - - - - - 1
Petasites hybridus Butterbur 1 - 1 1 1 1 - - - - -
Phalaris arundinacea Reed Grass 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Phleum pratense Timothy 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Phragmites australis Common Reed 1 1 1 1 - - - - - 1 -
Phylitis scolopendrium Hartstongue - - - - - - - - - - 1
Plantago lanceolata Ribwort Plantain 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Plantago major Great Plantain 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Poa annua Annual Meadow Grass 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Poa pratensis Smooth Meadow Grass 1 - - - - - 1 - - N -
Poa trivialis Rough meadow grass - - - - - - - - - N -
Polygonum amphibium Amphibious Bistort 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Polygonum aviculare Knotgrass 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Polygonum bistorta Bistort - - - - - - - 1 - - -
Polygonum cuspidatum Japanese Polygonum 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Polygonum persicaria Redleg - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Populus alba Poplar - - - - - - - - T - -
Potentilla anglica Trailing Tormentil 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Primula vulgaris Primrose - - - - - - - - B - -
Prunella vulgaris Self-heal - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Quercus spp Oak - - - - - 1 - - T - -
Ranunculus acris Meadow Buttercup 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Ranunculus aquatilis Water Crowfoot 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser Celandine - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Ranunculus repens Creeping Buttercup 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Ranunculus sceleratus Celeryleaved Crowfoot 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Reseda luteola Weld 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Ribes sanguineum Flowering Currant - - - - - - - - - - 1
Rorippa islandica Marsh Yellow Cress 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Rosa canina agg. Dog Rose - - - - - - - - - N -
Rubus fruticosa agg. Blackberry 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Rubus idaeus Raspberry - - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Rumex acetosa Sorrel - - - - - - - - - N -
Rumex acetosella Sheep’s Sorrel 1 - - - 1 1 - - - - -
Rumex crispus Curled Dock 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Rumex obtusifolius Broad Leaved Dock 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Sagina procumbens Pearlwort 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Salix caprea Goat Willow 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Salix cinerea Common Sallow 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Salix fragilis Crack Willow 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Salix viminalis Osier 1 - - - - - 1 - - - -
Sambucus nigra Elder - - - - - - - - T - -
Sanguisorba minor Salad Burnet - - - - - - - - - - 1
Saponaria offincinalis Soapwort - - - - - - - - - - 1
Sarothamnus scoparius Broom 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Scilla hispanica Spanish Bluebell - - - - - - - - - - 1
Scrophularia nodosa Figwort 1 - 1 1 - 1 - - - 1 -
Scutellaria galericulate Common Skullcap - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Sedum acre Biting Stonecrop - - - - - 1 - 1 - - -
Senecio jacobaea Ragwort 1 - - 1 1 - - - B 1 -
Senecio squalidus Oxford Ragwort 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Senecio viscosus Stinking Groundsel 1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Senecio vulgaris Groundsel 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Silene alba White Campion 1 1 - 1 1 - - - - - -
Silene alba x dioica   1 - - - 1 - - - - - -
Silene dioica Red Campion 1 1 1 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Sisyrinchium bermudiana Blue Eyed Grass - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Solanum dulcamara Woody Nightshade 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Sonchus aleraceus Sow Thistle - - - - 1 - - - - - -
Sonchus arvensis Field Milk Thistle 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - -
Sonchus asper Spring Sow Thistle 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Sonchus oleraceus Sow Thistle 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Sorbus aria Whitebeam - - - - - - - - T - -
Sorbus aucuparia Rowan - - - - - - - - T N -
Spergula arvensis Corn Spurry 1 - - - 1 - - - - - 1
Stachys palustris Marsh Woundwort 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Stachys sylvatica Hedge Woundwort 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Stellaria holostea Greater Stitchwort - - - - - - - 1 - - -
Stellaria media Common Chickweed - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Symphytum officinale Common Comfrey - - - - - - - - - - 1
Taraxacum officinale agg. Dandelion 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Tilia platyphyllos Lime - - - - - - - - T - -
Tragopogon pratensis Goat’s Beard - - - - - - - - - - 1
Trifolium campestre Hop trefoil - - - - - - - - - N -
Trifolium dubium Lesser Yellow Trefoil 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Trifolium medium Zig-zag Clover 1 - - 1 - - - - - - -
Trifolium pratense Red Clover 1 - - 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Trifolium repens White Clover 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Tripleurospermum maritimum Scentless Mayweed 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Tussilago farfare Coltsfoot 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Typha latifolia Great Reedmace 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Ulex europaeus Gorse 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Ulmus spp Elm - - - - - - - - T - -
Urtica dioca Stinging Nettle 1 1 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 -
Verbascum thapsus Yellow Rattle - - - - - - - - - - 1
Veronica beccabunga Brooklime - - - - - 1 - - - - -
Veronica sepyllifolia Thyme-leaved Speedwell - - - - - - - - - - 1
Viburnum opulus Guelder Rose - - - - - - - - T - -
Vicia cracca Tufted Vetch 1 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 -
Vicia hirsuta Hairy Tare - - - - - - 1 - - - -
Vicia sepium Bush Vetch 1 - - 1 - - - - - 1 -
Vinca major Periwinkle - - - - - - - - - - 1
Visum album Mistletoe - - - - - - - - T - -
Xubus idaeus Raspberry - - 1 - - - - - - - -